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What is Military History
Transcript of What is Military History
The proper application of these principles is essential to effective
military operations. These principles can also be very useful in daily life.
limited in scope, goals, and effects short of the complete annihilation of the enemy and occupation of his lands.
At the end of this unit cadets will be able to:
Understand what military history is.
Be able to see changes in "military science" over time.
Recognize and explain fundamental principals of war.
Define key terms and concepts.
It is the stories of how societies organize and plan for defense and how they operate in peace and war.
It covers cultural, economic, legal, religious, social, political, and technological aspects and impacts on a society.
It is the study of how a nation-state balances the need to create an element of organized violence, controls it and, and uses it.
It deals with the interactions of military affairs with the diplomatic, intellectual, political, and social changes in society.
have larger scope goals and consequences including the destruction and conquest of the enemy!
rely on irregular forces for most, if not all, of the combat.
The “formal” aspect of war has changed over time.
Second World War conflicts were easily:
Before 1918, wars were viewed as the “normal” results of “failed” diplomacy.
Men would rush to serve in their nation's military.
as well as
Since the Second World War formal declarations are no longer used.
The United Nations Charter (1945) prohibits the threat and use of force in international conflicts and the increase of non-state (terrorist) organizations mean that formal declarations of war are obsolete.
Is War an ART or a SCIENCE?
The Theory and Practice of War
From the 1700s through the early-1800s war was viewed as a science.
Formal training in mathematics and geography were considered THE
essential skills of a commander who wished to win wars.
The employment of the “nation in arms” combined with the Industrial Revolution have magnified the destructive nature of warfare have undermined the "scientific" view of war.
Science and technology have not eliminated the belief that war is a science in that many nations see technology as the key to victory.
Fog of War's
” impact on men and machinces proves that war is an art
describes uncertainty in any particular situation
lack of information of enemy capabilities and intentions
The term defines the uncertainty regarding ones own capability, the adversary’s capability and intent during an engagement, operation or campaign.
FOG OF WAR
Military theorists have tried to identify the principles underlying the
art of war
They studied military experiences from throughout history, cultures, and geography, looking for fundamental truths.
These studies have resulted in lists of principles or rules which are based on the campaigns and the writings of the great captains of war such as:
Frederick the Great
Helmuth von Moltke
Robert E. Lee
Economy of force
Unity of command
Direct every operation toward a
CLEARLY DEFINED, DECISIVE,
Objectives can be:
“Success demands singleness of purpose.”
Seize, retain, and exploit the initiative.
"Strength lies not in defense
but in attack."
Place the enemy in a disadvantageous position through the flexible application of combat power.
“Battles are won by slaughter and maneuver. The greater the general, the more he contributes in maneuver, the less he demands in slaughter.”
Concentrate the effects of combat power at the decisive place and time.
When one of Napoleon’s subordinates showed a plan that distributed forces in neat little groups along the borders, Napoleon asked, "Very pretty, but what do you expect them to do? Collect customs duties?"
Carefully allocate and employ combat power and resources in a way that moves you closer to the primary objective.
"Every unnecessary expenditure of time, every unnecessary detour, is a waste of power, and therefore contrary to the principles of strategy."
For every objective, ensure unity of effort under one responsible commander.
"Two people cannot be in charge.
There is only one head coach, only
one president, only one Pope.”
Strike the enemy at a time or place or in a manner for which he is unprepared.
“Surprise is what happens when someone has seen something all along and thought it was something else.”
Prepare clear, uncomplicated plans and clear, concise orders to ensure thorough understanding and minimize confusion.
the initiation of...
...and cessation of conflicts.
ART OR SCIENCE
The use of military force is both an art AND a science.
Never permit the enemy to gain
an unexpected advantage.