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Patterns of Term Formation

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Jahanara Ferrero

on 2 October 2016

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Transcript of Patterns of Term Formation

Patterns of Term Formation
Modification of existing resources
The most common method of designation of new concepts is the modification of existing one by means of:

Affixation: the addition of affixes.
Compounding: the combination of existing words into new ones.
Conversion: a syntagmatically varied use of the same form.
Compression: any form of shortening of an expression form.
There are three major approaches to the creation of new designations (labels) for the concepts:

The use of existing sources.
The modification of existing sources.
The creation of new linguistic entities.
The use of existing sources
In this approach, it is common to extend the meaning of an existing term to embrace that of a new concept.
The most common way is the use of simile: the naming of a concept in analogy to a familiar one, or by the use of -style, -like, -type.
Another technique is to explore the polysemic nature of general language designations.

Hotspot
Affixation
It takes several forms and has several functions. By form it can be pre-, in- or suf-fixation; by function, it can serve for determination and for changing word categories.
In practice, most suffixes serve to determine change of word category and prefixes serve for determination.
Geo-blocking
It refers to the practice of preventing access to websites, applications and media based on the location of the user’s IP address.
Compounding
A compound is a combination of two or more words into a new syntagmatic unit with a new meaning and independent of the constituent parts.
When there are two elements in a compound, the first element usually determines the second, which is called the nucleus.
Gene mutation
It is a genetic change at the level of the genes, a change in the nitrogenous base sequences.
Conversion
It is the change of word category without morphological alteration of the word inflection. E.g., a noun used as a verb, an adjective used as a noun.
Fracking
Compression
The shortening of an expression is done by means of:
abbreviation.
clipping: when syllables or letters are omitted from any part of the word.
acronyms: formed from initial letters of longer words; etc.
Sextortion
It is a type of exploitation that involves coercion to extort sexual favours from the victim. It is also a type of blackmail in which sexual images or videos are used to force sexual favours from the victim.
Particular case of compounding and simultaneous clipping:
sexual + extortion
=
sextortion
Determination (prefixation):

A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
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