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By: Amber Fields, Anna Sasser, Anna Powell, Terri Narron, and Perla Rangel

anna sasser

on 6 April 2015

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What were the classrooms, teachers, and supplies like? Where was “school” held and why?
In the twentieth century students attended school during normal school hours five days a week. However, during this time students were expected to help their families on the farm during planting season. When planting season rolled around schools were not in session as they allowed for students to help their families. Planting seasons usually fell sometime in the spring as well as the fall, as farmers aim to avoid the frost.
How did local, state, national, and/or worldwide events influence education in that era?
John Dewey was a 20th century pioneer for education. He promoted the value of everyday experience for young children. During this time they would say during Dewey time the children would be found sitting patiently in their seats and listening to the teacher teach something and put it in their memory. He wanted the children to learn that even the young kids had things that they need to commit to memory that they had to do everyday. One of his strongest beliefs was education reform. His idea was that not only does kids need to learn there abc's, but they also need to learn how to do household chores such as watering plants or cleaning up their toys. He is also one of the founders of Progressivism.
Who was educated during the era?
When did students attend “school” or have lessons?
During the 20th century the availability of education increased for students across the United States. In the century before, public schools began to arise and by the 20th century they saw a significant increase in students. In the 1920s all states began requiring that students aged 8 to 14 must attend school for a part of the year. While there was an increase in large public schools, small one room schools could still be found in poor rural areas. Students in these one room schools would vary in different grades and ages and would all be taught by a single teacher. In the urban public schools there were multiple classrooms and students were separated into their appropriate grade levels. During the 20th century schools supplies were scarce compared to what classrooms and schools have today. In the early 20th century classroom, students were lucky to have a slate board and chalk for school supplies. As the century progressed classrooms began to obtain markers, paper, scissors, glue, pencils, and books for each individual child. With the invention of the automobile school buses soon began to be a valuable resource to schools. School buses provided access to schools for more children especially in rural areas. The first school buses were pulled by a team of horse. It was in the 1950s that the modern school bus was invented. In the late 20th century computers began to find their way into classrooms. Teachers during this century were the focus of the classroom. Students' desks were arranged in rows facing the teacher who stood at the front of the class. Teachers spent the majority of class lecturing, and students were expected to write down information from the lecture. Students also had very little if not no say in what they were taught. This teaching style did not encourage students to be independent thinkers, but rather repeat exactly what the teacher and textbook told them.
1902—In North Carolina the Woman’s Association for the Betterment of Public School Houses was founded in Greensboro. The group was made of at least 200 women from the State Normal and Industrial College. Their goal was to refurbish and renovate school and to raise money for school supplies and books for libraries.

1954—Brown vs. Board of Education—was a case in which a black family wanted their child to attend an all-white school that was closer to their home. The ruling stated that racial discrimination of children in public schools violated the 14th amendment.

1957—The Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the world’s 1st manmade satellite, into orbit. While the launch of the satellite did not a big turnout. It made Americans think about science and technology. Schools across America added classes such as calculus, chemistry and physics. The government also formed new agencies, such as NASA and ARPA to create new technology.
1964--The Civil Rights Act was signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson in which it states that discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin is illegal. After this, things started to slowly change nationwide. The integration of races in schools, businesses and local communities started to become one.

1965-- In the summer of 1965, the project Head Start was created to help low-income children prepare for grade school. Its purpose was to teach the skills needed to be successful in school. This programs has continues to help children nationwide.

1969—On July 16th 1969, Neil Armstrong become the 1st man on the moon. This caused many around the world to want to invent and experiment to become more hi-tech. Many students were in college wanting to study physics.
1975—Education for All Handicapped Children Act was passed on 1979--In 1979, President Jimmy Carter created the U.S. Department of Education. It started operating on May 4th, 1980. Its purpose is to enforce federal educational laws, coordinate assistance to education and gather information from schools.

1983—The Internet officially launched in January of 1983. In 1990, the World Wide Web was invented by computer scientist, Tim Berners-Lee. The Web gave people the means to access data online throughout the world.

1995- Integration of internet in schools --By 1995 most schools had computers and internet use for student. Students were able to use computers and navigate the Internet for research.
Identify any particular people who emerged during the era, specifically people who are now considered pioneers of American education. What is their contribution?

"20th Century Education." The History of Education in America. Web. 1 Apr. 2015. http://www.chesapeake.edu/Library/EDU_101/eduhist_20thC.asp

Janzen, Jonathan. "Education in the 20th Century: A Reflection." Cooperative Catalyst. 3 Aug. 2011. Web. 1 Apr. 2015. https://coopcatalyst.wordpress.com/2011/08/03/education-in-the-20th-century-a-reflection

"Children’s Lives at the Turn of the Twentieth Century." Teaching with Primary Sources. Library of Congress. Web. 1 Apr. 2015. http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/childrens-lives/pdf/teacher_guide.pdf

"Computer and Internet Access in Private Schools and Classrooms." National Center for Education Statistics, 1995-1998. Web. 1 Apr. 2014

"John Dewey (1859-1952)." PBS. PBS. Web. 5 Apr. 2015. http://www.pbs.org/onlyateacher/john.html

Stern, David. "Expanding Policy Options for Educating Teenagers." The Future of Children. The Trustees of Princeton University, 1 Jan. 2015. Web. 5 Apr. 2015. http://futureofchildren.org/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=30&articleid=54&sectionid=222

"A Brief History of the Internet." Online Library Learning Center. Regents of the University System of Georgia. Web. 5 Apr. 2015. http://www.usg.edu/galileo/skills/unit07/internet07_02.phtml

"The Invention of the Internet." History. A&E Television Networks. Web. 5 Apr. 2015. http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/invention-of-the-internet

Schugurensky, Daniel. "Selected Moments of the 20th Century." History of Education: Selected Moments. 1 May 2012. Web. 5 Apr. 2015. http://schugurensky.faculty.asu.edu/moments/#00s

Major historic events during the 20th century. (1999, Jan 31). News Sentinel Retrieved from http://ezproxy.johnstoncc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/393540239?accountid=11741




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Works Cited
Blacks were excluded from attending schools with whites up until the court case Brown vs. Board of Education. This court case stated that separate public schools for blacks and whites was unconstitutional. Before this court case made its landmark on the United States in 1954, blacks attended schools of their own. However, there were not as many public schools available. And, the schools that were available were not given as much funding as the public schools for whites. The black schools were overcrowded and falling apart. Leaking roofs and windows without glass were all that black students and teachers had to work with at the time. In turn, in the mid-20TH century blacks were allowed to legally attend school with whites. Not only were blacks segregated from whites, but Hispanics were as well. Up until 1947 Hispanics were not legally allowed to attend school with whites. The Mendez vs. Westminster School District of Orange County court case made it unconstitutional for Mexican and Mexican American students to be segregated. So, in turn, schools were fully interracial in the mid-20th century.
The 20th century brought about many changes in education. In this century schools became more prevalent, more children were being educated, and segregation of schools ended. To begin with African American, Caucasian, Disabled, Native American, Asian American, and Hispanic children were educated separately, but by the end of the century these students were being educated together. Education was more prominent in the North, but the South also opened many schools. The South received less funding and agriculture was still extremely important. The idea of this century was that everyone deserved an equal education and attendance was even mandatory in public schools. Overall the amount of students being educated increased a great deal. Middle School and High School also started during this century, and more Universities opened their doors. Kindergarten and Preschool also began during this century to prepare younger children for school. Education became important and students became a priority.
Why was a particular student population included and/or excluded?
By: Amber Fields, Anna Sasser, Anna Powell, Terri Narron, and Perla Rangel
W.E.B. DuBois was also an important person during the 20th century because he worked to gain equality in education, and every other field, for African Americans and other minorities. Other pioneers included Horace Mann, Henry Adams, Catherine Beecher, Elaine Goodale Eastman, Charlotte Forten, Margeret Haley, Julia Richman, and Laura Towne. Each contributed to education as we know it today.
John Dewey
W.E.B. DuBois
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