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Designing for future learning – A focus on Augmented Reality

Looking glass into the future

Matt Bower

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of Designing for future learning – A focus on Augmented Reality

The future is in our hands

So many of the educational uses of AR focus on developing lower order thinking skills such as recollection, understanding and application
Critically important to engage higher order thinking capabilities of analysis, evaluation and creativity
Students as designers as a way to engage this…

Importance of developing students' Higher Order Thinking capabilities

Perfectly situated scaffolding
: providing knowledge at exact time and place of need –increasing cognitive efficiency (e.g. instruction manuals for electronic equipment

Physical transcension
: overcoming physical limitations of our world to scale, manipulate and mix in safe, inexpensive and time effective ways (from molecular to galactic)

Pedagogical affordances of AR

Thought Experiment – What could AR do?

Affordances of Input Devices

Augmented Reality Systems can be defined as those that allow real and virtual objects to co-exist in the same space and be interacted with in real-time (Azuma, 1997)

Augmented Reality enables the seamless compositing of virtual objects onto a real environment in a contextually relevant manner (Billinghurst et al., 2001)

What is Augmented Reality?

Azuma, R. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence, 6(4), 355-385.
Billinghurst, M., Kato, H., & Poupyrev, I. (2001). The magicbook-moving seamlessly between reality and virtuality. Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, 21(3), 6-8.
Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R. (2009). Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory Augmented Reality simulations for teaching and learning. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18(1), 7-22.
Jonassen, D., Howland, J., Marra, R., & Crismond, D. (2008). Meaningful learning with technology, 3rd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Kaufmann, H., & Schmalstieg, D. (2003). Mathematics and geometry education with collaborative augmented reality. Computers & Graphics, 27(3), 339-345.
Kerawalla, L., Luckin, R., Seljeflot, S., Woolard, A. (2006). 'Making it real': exploring the potential of augmented reality for teaching primary school science. Virtual Reality, 10(3-4), 163-174. doi: 10.1007/s10055-006-0036-4
Laurillard, D. (2012). Teaching as a design science: Building pedagogical patterns for learning and technology. Routledge: NY
Milgram, P., Takemura, H., Utsumi, A., & Kishino, F. (1994). Augmented Reality: A class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum. In Proceedings of Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies, (pp. 2351–2334).
Squire, K., & Jan, M. (2007). Mad City Mystery: Developing scientific argumentation skills with a place-based augmented reality game on handheld computers. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16(1), 5-29.

Integrated Virtual Networks – Silhouette

Blurring of reality-virtuality boundaries

Real-time student data overlays

Face-recognition + student tracking + AR =

ISS Live to find the International Space Station and deduce how and where to dock (http://spacestationlive.nasa.gov)
Potential for integrated uses of AR

SkyView Augmented Reality star viewing application to plot a path to the Moon and Mars (http://www.terminaleleven.com/skyview)

Potential for integrated uses of AR

In search of an alternative sustainable place for humans to live, students could use...
Potential for integrated uses of AR

Speech to text + translation engine + text to speech = Real-time audio translation

Exciting things happen when input matches output

Affordances of Output Devices

Laurillard argues that teaching is part art and part science - a design science

Teaching is more like a design science because it uses what is known about teaching to attain the goal of student learning, and uses the implementation of its designs to keep improving them.
(Laurillard, 2012, p. 1)
Teaching as a Design Science

We should expect the pace of technology to continue to accelerate
Viewing teaching as a design science empowers educators and makes our practice more impervious to change
We need to hold true to our pedagogical design principles at the same time as identifying how new technologies may enable us to instantiate those principles in new and better ways
We should become learning scientists in our classrooms and continually reflect upon and evaluate the efficacy of our approaches
As leaders in this most important field we should fearlessly model, amplify and reward
Summative recommendations

Blended Synchronous Learning and Blended Reality (http://blendsync.org)

Blurring of reality-virtuality boundaries

Devices merging seamlessly into our world

Situated simulations of pasts and futures

3D Models + interactivity + AR =


More intelligent input recognition (temperature, smell, voice recognition, gesture detection such as Leap Motion)
More sophisticated output types (haptic, more complex 3D interactive models, scripts to networked devices)
Evolution of output devices (contact lenses)

Anticipating AR tech developments
Planets3D book to ventures to further planets
Potential for integrated uses of AR

Spacecraft 3D to simulate Martian data collection
Potential for integrated uses of AR

Transparent Earth to peer through the globe and pick a launch site

Potential for integrated uses of AR

(Squire & Jan, 2007)

Games based learning
– by creating a digital narrative, placing students in a role, providing authentic resources, and embedding contextually relevant information

Pedagogies Supported by AR


Eg Wordlens: http://wordlens.com/us/

Exciting things happen when input matches output

Fetch Lunch Rush http://pbskids.org/mobile/fetch-lunch-rush.html

AR in Education

Ingress http://ingress.com

AR Games

AR Basketball http://augmentedpixels.com

AR Games

Alien Attack http://www.apptoyz.com/apps/alien-attack

AR Games


AR Plane Finder http://my.pinkfroot.com/page/plane-finder-ar-track-live

Location based


Wikitude http://wikitude.com

Location based


Ad Sugar http://adsugarmedia.com

Image (Marker) based

String http://poweredbystring.com

Image (Marker) based

Paralax tracking and modelling, combined with Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) technology

Real-time scene reconstruction

Google glass http://www.google.com/glass/start

Devices merging seamlessly into our world

MoonGlobe and MarsGlobe to explore the moon and mars for best places to inhabit (see http://www.midnightmartian.com)

Potential for integrated uses of AR

(Kaufmann & Schmalstieg, 2003)

Inquiry-based learning
– embedding virtual manipulable models within the real world

Pedagogies Supported by AR

(Dunleavy et al, 2009)

Situated learning
– authentic and contextualised learning by embedding educational experiences within the real world and bringing the real world into the classroom

Pedagogies Supported by AR

Instruction manuals

Exciting things happen when input matches output

Zooburst http://zooburst.com

AR in Education

LearnAR http://learnar.org

AR in Education

Paper4D http://paper4D.com

Image (Marker) based

AIS ICT Integration Conference 2014 – 16th-17th September 2014

Email: matt.bower@mq.edu.au
Twitter: @mattgbower

Designing for future learning -
A focus on Augmented Reality

Aurasma (http://aurasma.com)
Layar (http://layar.com)
Junaio (http://junaio.com)

AR Systems enabling teachers to become designers


As for any technology, the pedagogical effectiveness depends on the way it is used, not the technology itself

Pedagogies Supported by AR

(Kerawalla et al., 2006)


engage on deeper level with the tasks, concepts and resources to make deep and lasting connections within their knowledge base
Pedagogies Supported by AR

Output augments user’s environment:(screen, speakers
vibrate, flash)

Media returned:

Data sent to server
(if required)


How does AR work?











(start 46secs)
(start 1:55)
(see 2:55)
A focus
on AR

Image Based

Location based

AR Games
AR in

of AR

Modulating Reality
and AR

Integrating AR

of AR

Design Thinking for Educators
Teaching as a
Design Science

Make IT Personal (differentiate)
Make IT Physical (apply, build, design)
Make IT Communal (collaborate, share)
Make IT Better (assessment mechanisms)
Make IT Interesting (media enrichment)
Make IT Fit (design Australian Curriculum focussed programs with a focus on ICT amplification)
Make IT Professional (professional learning portfolios)
Make IT Easier (customised professional learning)
AIS Technology Integration Conference Themes!
Dave Jonassen's Meaningful Learning
(Jonassen et al., 2008)
Align goals, activities and assessments
Monitor alternative conceptions
Scaffold theory-based practice
Foster conceptual knowledge development
Encourage metacognition
Laurillard's strategies for effective teaching
How to design?

Partnership for 21st Century Skills
National Educational Technology
Standards for Students:

Creativity and innovation
Research and information fluency
Communication and collaboration
Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making
Digital citizenship
Technology operations and concepts


International Society for Technology in Education
Rapid Evolution
of Technology

Minecraft in Education
Web 2.0 technologies
Apple Watch
Performed substantial research into artwork’s history, context and materials
Developed an interface prototype for their design
Multimedia texts (written, image, video) launched via buttons
Provided deep interpretations (e.g. how shadows added unexpected meaning)

James and Chris’s Design for ‘Bridge’ by John Petrie

Provided a personalised and contextualised AR video interpretation
Incorporated a thematic comparison with another text (Lord of the Rings)
Created an original AR effect enabling users to insert their own interpretation: “Slide a new image of unity under your camera”

Tom’s design for ‘Achievement through Unity’

Strong emotional response to piece
AR experience aimed to portray perceived mystery, intrigue and spirituality
Recorded audio track and blue-screen video projecting sculpture qualities
Incorporated textual explanations aligning their interpretation with those of the artist

Rachel, Susie and Sammi’s Design for ‘Algoid’ by Errol Davis

Students as Designers
with AR

Make IT Personal (differentiate)
Make IT Physical (apply, build, design)
Make IT Communal (collaborate, share)
Make IT Better (assessment mechanisms)
Make IT Interesting (media enrichment)
Make IT Fit (design Australian Curriculum focussed programs with a focus on ICT amplification)
Make IT Professional (professional learning portfolios)
Make IT Easier (customised professional learning)
Has IT helped to make it all happen?
Has IT enabled Meaningful Learning?
(Jonassen et al., 2008)
Align goals, activities and assessments
Monitor alternative conceptions
Scaffold theory-based practice
Foster conceptual knowledge development
Encourage metacognition
Has IT facilitated effective teaching?

Every learning context and cohort is different
Important to adopt an evidence (research) based approach to evaluation
Need to determine in advance what data needs to be collected and how this informs evaluation and refinement of learning designs
AIS Educational Research Project and postgraduate studies as vehicles to explore these practices
Learning analytics and data driven practice
Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Test_tubes_(1).jpg
SkyView http://www.terminaleleven.com/skyview
Location Based
Augmented Reality Knowledge Base https://wiki.mq.edu.au/display/ar/

Bower, M., Howe, C., McCredie, N., Robinson, A., & Grover, D. (2014). Augmented Reality in education - Cases, places and potentials.
Educational Media International, 51
(1), 1-15.

These presentation slides are available from: http://bit.ly/ais14bower

Where to find out more...


Suellen Loughhead - Using Augmented Reality to bring your lessons to life! (Secondary focus using Layar)
Amy Tickle - Augmented Reality in primary (HSIE) using Aurasma
Jenny Madigan - Augmented reality in the Primary classroom (Aurasma)
Great examples of AR within AISNSW
Full transcript