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MESOPOTAMIA & Gilgamesh
Transcript of MESOPOTAMIA & Gilgamesh
GOVERNMENT AND LAW
Mesopotamian belief system was polytheistic meaning belief in many gods and goddesses
ECONOMY AND ARTS
STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT
THE MERCHANT AND ARTISANS
THE COMMON PEOPLE
EXAMPLES OF INDUSTRY
TYPES OF TRADE AND TRANSPORT
AGRICULTURAL ADVANCES (IRRIGATION CANALS)
EPIC OF GILGAMESH
BRONZE AND IRON WEAPONS
MATHEMATICS - Base of 60
HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON
Anthropomorphic is a human characterestic that can be shown within anything. In ancient Mesopotamia, they see their gods/godesses like humans.
ANU - The god of the highest heaven
MARDUK - The national god of the Babylonians
ISHTAR - Goddess of love
NERGAL - God of war and plague
ARURU - mother goddess and midwife of the gods
NAMMU - Goddess of water
Ziggurats are multi-story platforms. In ancient times, It is believed that it is a shrine and that priests would use the stairs to go up and perform rituals, recite hymns and prayers. It was believed that the height of the shrine would be easy for deities to descend and give blessings to the people.
Mesopotamian mythology explained how natural and supernatural phenomenon happen.
THE MESOPOTAMIANS BELIEVED...
World is a flat disk, and surrounded by a vast space.
The Sea is all around the earth.
The Universe had been born with the waters.
Death was seen as a condition for humans and the gods were seen as immortals although some them die b/c of another god.
Death was absent in creation texts although were told in tales. They believe that gods created death to prevent overpopulation.
The average lifespan around the era was forty years, and if one dies before their time, it is seen as a curse from the gods.
The people believed that underworld is literally below the earth's ground.
Believed that every dead person is in the underworld.
With morals, there is no particular judgment.
It is believed that there can be consequences if someone is buried improperly.
The highest position of the Mesopotamia hierarchy.
The king is responsible for creating laws.
Believed that they were gods on earth.
The head of the army.
Upper class and well educated.
Scribes obtained work in palace, army, government, merchants
Underwent training in order to be a scribe.
THE MERCHANTS AND ARTISANS
Belonged to upper class.
They make wealth for the growth of the city.
They were known to invent cuneiform to document trade deals.
Also invented calendars for tracking trades.
THE COMMON PEOPLE (COMMONERS)
Belong to a labor lower class.
Made up 85% of the social pyramid.
Professions like pottery, fishing, farming, etc.
They had shelter but not rich although they were comfortable.
Lowest level of the Mesopotamian social pyramid.
Worked for upper class people.
Slaves mostly worked in agricultural
Usually were from conquered territories.
Best known and most celebrated king of all Mesopotamian kings.
Ruled the Babylonian Empire from 1792-50 B.C.E.
When he started to rule, he had control of 50 square miles of territory.
As he conquered other areas and his empire grew, he saw the need to unify the various groups he controlled.
He was concerned with keeping order in his kingdom so he created laws.
Hammurabi understood that making a law would keep his people in order.
He then sent the legal experts to gather all the laws.
Edited to 282.
The code is comparable with the phrase "an eye for an eye" because it is a sense of justice based on revenge.
The code can punish among wealth, noble persons, lower class, commoners and slaves.
The code covers all types of issues relating to farming, herding animals, ownership, etc.
Centralized state ruled by a king.
Social pyramid and unequal distribution of classes
Government bureaucracy (for example taxes were in form of tithes paid by farmers.)
Civil servants (scribes).
Hammurabi Code - system of law.
Reigned 604-562 BC
Babylon's most energetic king.
His armies destroyed Jerusalem.
He was ruthless and very smart at governing Babylon.
Babylon was magnificent during his reign until Persians invaded.
Pottery - people had been using clay to make objects as far back as 8000 BCE. With the use of pottery, distinctive shapes have been reflected.
Banking - the concept of it started with the Mesopotamian Civilization.
Mesopotamia wasn't rich with natural resources, so they relied on trade with neighboring countries.
Things like grains, oils and textiles are used to trade with wine, timber, metals, etc.
Cuneiform is the first writing system that is invented in southern Mesopotamia
People in Mesopotamian civilization developed a form of writing to record things like trading and recording information
Earliest writings were found with pictograms, and they were used for communicating related into crops and money.
Over time, they developed a script.
The Mesopotamian scribes recorded daily events, astronomy, literature on tablets.
Cuneiform & Heiroglyphics co-existed and were the first forms of writing
Canals and irrigation ditches were built for directing water to the fields for farming.
When the growing season began, farmers were allowed only a certain amount of water.
When it was the farmer's turn to water his fields, a regulator was used to adjust water flow.
Epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia
About a real king that lived around 2700 BCE
Circulated 2100 BCE as a cycle of poems
Revisions done in 1200 BCE are attributed to Sin-leqi-unninni
The early use of wheels were found in Mesopotamia dated around 3500 BC.
Chariots around 3200 BCE.
Used for transporting trades and goods.
In 2900 BC, the bronze age began in Mesopotamia
They were one of the first people to create bronze for weapons.
An example of a bronze sword is the sickle sword of Mesopotamia.
The next material weapon was made of Iron.
Iron ore was abundant and it could be heated with high temperature.
Was also used for weaponry in Mesopotamia
Called Babylonian Mathematics
They were written in cuneiform script
The numeral system was base of 60
It derives from modern day usage 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour and 360 degrees in a whole circle.
The Babylonians added an extra month to their years at irregular intervals. Their calendar, composed of alternate 29-day and 30-day months, kept roughly in step with the lunar year. Every 7th day was a "holy day."
Hanging Gardens of Babylon was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
There is no archaeological evidence of the location of the gardens. Only mentioned in legends and texts.
According to a legend, Nebuchadnezzar II built the gardens for his wife because his wife missed her homeland with hills and valleys.
Source: "The Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages." <i>Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages</i>. Web. 19 Feb. 2015. <http://www.essential-humanities.net/history-overview/stone-bronze-iron-ages/>.
Together with Nannar–Sin and Ishtar, Shamash completes the triad by the side of Anu, Enlil and Ea, which symbolized three great forces of nature: the Moon, the Sun, and the life-giving force of the earth, respectively.
THEMES IN "THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH"
1. Harshness of nature & human life
2. Ceaseless struggle between tame and domesticated/wild and untamed
3. Importance of cities and civilization
6. Importance of knowledge
7. Acceptance of mortal limits
8. Inevitability of death
9. The gods are dangerous