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Transcript of Cloning
-What exactly is cloning?
History of cloning
Who first experimented on the field of cloning and why?
Dolly the sheep
Advantages and disadvantages
It can significantly hamper the much needed DNA diversity in human beings
Would cloned organs even be affordable?
Does it Violate Human Rights?
•Creating an identical copy of its original
• By fusing cell parts
What exactly is Cloning?
"...Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms..." - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloning
First experimental scientist: Hans Spemann
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Awarded Nobel Prize 1935
He was born in Stuttgart, on June 27th, 1869.
Successful developments in the field of micro-surgery, led to him becoming Professor at University of Rostock.
He made ground breaking findings in embryology.
Performed first successful Somatic Nuclear Cell Transfer in 1928
He left school in 1888 and did Military service.
Received degree in Medicine in 1891 from University of Heidelberg
Met Gustav Wolff in the University
Gustav Wolff was a leading embryologist.
Married Klara Binder in 1892
They had two kids
Received his degrees in zoology, botany and physics in 1895
"The Germ Plasm: A Theory of Heredity" inspired his future research.
Solution to infertility
Useful research in genetics
Article 11 of UNESCO's Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights states that the reproductive cloning of human beings is contrary to human dignity.
•Unique individual or genetic prisoner?
•An individual's life should be more than just satisfying someone else needs
•“meddling” with creation of life, playing God
•High deformity and disability rate --> not applicable for humans
•Wrong for any human to have genetic make up of any other human individual
•unsure how the cloned individual might react and behave with regards to his family and parents
•How would the parents and family regard the cloned individual?
•Genetic diversity of humans will go down -->makes humans prone to diseases
• Cloned child with multiple donors could raise parental legal issues
•Traded or sold as slaves
Laws about cloning
UNESCO passed a non-binding United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning, in March 2005, which states: Practices which are contrary to human dignity, such as reproductive cloning of human beings, shall not be permitted.
•Many countries banned cloning, though allowed therapeutic cloning
•Currently no federal laws that ban cloning in US
-->would raise Constitutional questions similar to the issues raised by abortion
•Thirteen American states (Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Iowa, Indiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, North Dakota, New Jersey, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Virginia) ban reproductive cloning
Even though cloning is a step ahead in genetics, it manipulates diversity and unique characteristics in human beings. It not only defies Human Rights but also raises legal issues in parenting. Also, cloning could be used as a weapon if it fell into the wrong hands. However we do support therapeutic cloning for the desire of human health and not for that of profit.
•First mammal to be successfully cloned in 1996
•Mammary gland cell of an adult sheep was used as somatic cell
•Named after Dolly Patron
•Lived for 7 years
•Had 6 healthy offspring
•Had arthritis problems, which a lot of sheep had
•277 trials that produced 29 embryos of which one birth survived
•Other animals cloned: carp, cat, cattle, deer, dog, ferret, fruit flies, frog, goat, horse, mice, mouflon, mule, pig, pyrenean ibex, rabbit, rat, rhesus monkey, sheep, water buffalo and a wolf
en.wikepedia.org/wiki/Ethics_of_cloning (15.08, 14:52)
http://www.explorestemcells.co.uk/therapeuticcloning.html (15.8.13, 14:37)
http://www.bioarts.com/sitemap.htm (15.8.13, 14:42)
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pros-and-cons-of-cloning.html (15.08, 14:50)
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ethical-issues-of-cloning.html (15.08, 14:51)
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/human-cloning-pros-and-cons.html (15.08, 15:17)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Dolly_face_closeup.jpg/220px-Dolly_face_closeup.jpg (12.09.13, 13:07)