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Protestant, Counter & English Reformation

Protestant, Counter & English Reformation
by

Angel Greathouse

on 4 January 2016

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Transcript of Protestant, Counter & English Reformation

Reformation
"Reform" of Religion
Some Catholics began PROTESTing
the actions of the Catholic Church
Martin Luther
German Monk and a professor
of theology (study of religion)
After studying Saint Paul's letters in the
New Testament, he began to think differently
about Christianity.
"Faith alone, grace alone, Scripture alone."
Salvation comes from FAITH
God's word is revealed through scripture
not traditions or leaders in the church
Faith is a free gift from God
not received through human efforts
Martin Luther's Main Issue?
HUMANISM in RELIGION
Corruption in Church was rampant
Believed Priests could marry and have kids
Did not believe in
Transubstantiation
On October 31, 1517,
Luther posted 95 criticisms
(called the 95 Theses)
of the RCC on the doors of
the Church in Wittenberg
These ideas spread like
wildfire across Europe...

HOW?!?!?
THE PRINTING PRESS!!!!
Pope Leo X tried to get Luther
to withdraw criticisms...Luther refused
Luther was excommunicated
(kicked out of the Church)
The DIET of Worms
(not what you think)
Council of German princes met in Worms, Germany (1521)
Tried to bring ML back into Church
Luther refused to take back his teachings
Condemned as a heretic (someone who spoke out against the church) - was rushed out of Worms and hidden
Translated Bible into German while in hiding
Lutheranism
First Protestant faith
Stressed salvation by faith
Bible is sole authority on religious truth
Worship services in common vernacular (people's everyday language)
JOHN CALVIN
Theories became known as Calvinism
Predestination: God predetermines the fate of every person, even before birth
Each Calvinist church controlled locally by minister and elected church members
Theocracy: government run by church officials
ENGLISH REFORMATION
Henry VIII wanted a baby boy to become his heir
He wanted a divorce from Catherine of Aragon because they only had a daughter named Mary
Pope refused to grant divorce (pope was Catherine's nephew)
Act of Supremacy, 1529:
Established the Church of England (Anglican)
Placed king as supreme leader of Anglican Church
2nd wife: Anne Boleyn has a girl - Elizabeth-- Anne is beheaded
3rd wife: Jane Seymour has Edward, but Jane dies

-Edward becomes king at age 9- Protestant advisors, but Edward dies
-Mary Queen of Scots (Catholic) is queen, and persecutes Protestants ("Bloody Mary")
-Mary died & Elizabeth became queen in 1558
-Elizabeth ruled longest; greatest ruler of the Tudor dynasty
-Nicknamed the "Virgin Queen" because she never married
-Established Anglicanism (A blend of Catholic & Protestant beliefs)
Those who wanted to get rid of all aspects of Catholicism from Church of England called Puritans
Wanted to purify the church
Some Puritans left England
to have religious freedom
in "NEW WORLD" (Sound
Familiar??)
1-Describe religion before
the Reformation.
2- How could humanism and
individualism influence religion?
Clerical Immorality
Clerical Ignorance
Barely could read
Poor quality of sermons
Ignorant of Latin/ The Bible
Clerical Absenteeism
Pluralism: priests held multiple offices at, but they did not always visit the churches or perform the spiritual rituals
The priests would simply hire someone (poor and uneducated) else to perform rituals, but they would collect the money from the positions
Drunkenness
Ignoring the rule of celibacy
Gambling
Indulgences: a document which would take away sins or "get into heaven free" card
Used to pay off debts by priests (religious or not...)
"As soon as coin in coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs"
COUNTER REFORMATION
Catholic leaders began to realize that the Protestant Reformation was catching on with the public
They needed to reform the Catholic Church to suppress the Protestants
Council of Trent
called by Pope Paul III
Church leaders agreed on certain basic doctrines
Pope's interpretation of the Bible is final
Salvation gained both by faith AND good works
both Bible AND church determine Christian living
legitimate indulgences (from Pope) allowed
Protestant
John Knox
-Influenced by John Calvin
-Started churches led by church leaders called presbyters
-Founded Presbyterian Church
John Calvin's Calvinism
Society of Jesus (AKA Jesuits)
-Order of monks founded by Ignatius of Loyola
-Ignatius was a wounded soldier, turned religious
-Wrote rules for disciplined Christian living
-Followers stuck to rigorous schedule for prayer & Bible study
-"What seems to me white, I will believe black if the hierarchical Church so defines."
-Jesuits known for military obedience to the Catholic Church
Goals of the Jesuits
-Education: Jesuits were trained in classics and theology (unlike most Catholic priests of the time)
-Conversion: sent missionaries all over known world to preach and convert
-Stop Protestantism from spreading in Europe
Holy Inquisition
-Catholic Church's method of removing heretics (those who went against Catholic Church)
-People were arrested and "questioned"/tortured about their beliefs until they renounced their faith or died
Henry VIII
-Devout Catholic, hated Martin Luther
-Good friends with the pope, but broke from Catholic Church

"Protest" Religion
ML's 95 Theses
Edward Tudor
Mary Tudor
Elizabeth Tudor
Full transcript