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Learning theory

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Adrienne Czerwin-Abbott

on 9 October 2018

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Transcript of Learning theory

Your Success in life all depends on your performance in The Marshmallow Test
and Consumer Behaviour

(a)Classical Conditioning (CC) Pavlov
(b)Operant (Instrumental) conditioning Skinner

MODELLING (Bandura & Walters)

(a)Insight – Kohler
(b)Latent - Tolman
Behavioural S-R
Blackbox, Connectivist
Classical Conditioning CC
Ivan Pavlov
Observational/ Modelling Bandura & Walters
25 YEARS OF oxo
comes to an end.....
Follow me on Twitter-adrienneczab
WAYS TO NUDGE/create habits-

Show social proof
Name packages - premium , standard etc
Anchor your audience - make bigger prices seem small
Limit choice - 'The Paradox of Choice'
Serve up 'Behavioural Data'
Remove unnecessary steps
Tap into power of 'Reciprocation' listen free - make donation
Familiarity breeds 'Trust'
Use data to boost 'ego'
Nudge over time 'not all at once'
Minimal design
Promote competition - bidding
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall



It is important to understand how:

Consumers learn about products and
Marketers teach consumers about products

Marketers grow nostalgia for the brand

It is important to understand how:

Our brains process information about brands to retain them in memory

The other products we associate with an individual product influence how we will remember it

Products help us to retrieve memories from our past

Marketers measure consumer memories about products and advertisements

What is learning?

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Incidental learning

Behavioral Learning





Conditioning Theories

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Repetition is KEY to maintaining Associations

Stimulus Generalization

Stimulus Discrimination


Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall



Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


6 Strategies to Increase
Engagement & Attention for
1. Surprise and Delight
more likely to increase
WOM (FourSquare)
2. Gamify your Brand
(Nike+ Fuel Brand)
3. Element of Fun
(Mini Cooper Hunt & Catch)
4. The Grind -an activity
that has been repeated
a number of times so that
it becomes second nature
5. Fresh Content
(Tesco changes offers on
Voucher redemption loyalty scheme
6. Meaningful Incentives (Recycle Bank
weighs amount of waste and offers currency rewards
Remember to provide
an opportunity for
improvement this gives
feeling of mastering
How to Make a GAME
Gamification in the WorkPlace
Player Types-

Killer 20%
Achiever 40%
Explorer 50%
Socialiser 80%
Fun is .... Winning, Problem solving, Exploring
Chilling, Teamwork, Recognition, Collecting, Triumphing, Surprise, Imagining, Sharing, Roleplaying, Customisation
What if Gamification became pervasive in Society .........
4 Types of Extrinsic
Reward Structures in Games
Example of Reward Structure
How about Gamifying
a College Course
Importance of feedback loop
Fixed Interval example
Zappos example Getting to know
employee program
List of Motivators for gaming
Latent Learning
Insight Learning
Insight Learning -Kohler
ASOS summer sale game
ASOS built a custom application
on their Facebook page which
allowed fans to play a series
of 4 games.Earning enough points
means player could go to top of
virtual queue to access summer
sale at 5pm. Those with fewer
points were held back in queue
and given access to 30 minute
time slots later on in day
Points were earned by:

1 confessions of a queue jumper-tweet or
comment on Facebook what they would do to jump Queue
2 Friends = Benefits points awarded to users
who invited friends to join app
3 A memory game where users were rewarded for
uncovering a matching pair of pictures that
featured items of clothing from the sale
4 Points were given for tweeting about the
25 years of Slice of Life
commercials for OXO
3 Types of Learning

Learning Directly

Vicariously by observing

Ongoing Process Knowledge
is being revised constantly
Ranges from - simple
association between Stimulus
(logo) and Response (Coca Cola)
to complex cognitive activity
like writing an exam Q
Theories focus on simple S-R Connections
are called Behavioural to complex solving
of problems called Cognitive and in between
watching others behave and learning from
them called Modelling/observational learning
Behavioural learning takes
place as a result of response (R)
to external events (Stimuli S)
This view does not focus on
internal thought processes
so Blackbox. Its' emphasis is
on observable aspects of
Things go into
the box (stimuli)
and things come out
2 Sub theories
Classical conditioning CC
Operant conditioning OC
We learn by Association
is a very old idea
We learn by association
is a very old idea
In summary
Classical conditioning occurs
when a stimulus that elicits a
response is paired with another
stimulus that does not elicit a
response on it's own, over time
the second stimulus causes a
similar response because it is
associated with the first stimulus
Visual and olfactory cues that
induce hunger, or thirst are
consistently paired with brand
names make consumers feel hungry
when exposed to brand name

Repeated exposures increase
strength of S-R bonds and
prevent decay of these
associations in memory
Stimulus Generalization-
tendency of stimuli similar
to a CS to evoke a similar CR
This Infant has
not learnt how to
discriminate between
an Ipad and a magazine
Well established brands
urge consumers not to buy

"Cheap imitations"
Halo effect
due to Brand
(Family Branding)
Alternative app
The individual learns to perform
behaviours that produce positive
outcomes and avoid negative ones

While responses in Classical Conditioning
are involuntary, those in Operant are
made deliberately to obtain a goal and
may be more complex.
Classical involves
close pairing of two
stimuli but instrumental
occurs as a result of a
reward following desired
behaviour and takes place
over a period in which a
variety of other behaviours
are attempted and abandoned
because they are not
People store observations
about the actions of others
and note the reinforcements
they receive using these as
a guide to future behaviour
Issue of consciousness-

Cognitive learning
occurs as a result
of mental processes
it stresses the
importance of internal
mental processes and
views learner as a
problem solver who
actually uses info
from world around them
to master their environment
it stresses the role of
creativity and insight
during the learning process
Important elements of
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