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THE 18th CENTURY

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Mara Masseroni

on 29 September 2014

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Transcript of THE 18th CENTURY

The birth of the novel
Literary setting
The Birth of Journalism
The Picaresque novel
The picaresque novel, a reaction against the absurd unrealities and idealism of the pastoral, sentimental, and chivalric novels, represents the beginnings of modern Realism.
The picaresque novel usually uses a first-person narrative and has an episodic structure, as the pícaro recounts his adventures in the service of one master after another. The picaro is a cynical and amoral rascal who has adventures among people from all social classes and professions.

The picaro’s narrative becomes in effect an ironic or satirical survey of the hypocrisies and corruptions of society. The authors attacked political, religious, and military matters.

The picaresque novel originated in Spain.

The first picaresque novel in England was Thomas Nashe’s Unfortunate Traveller,or, the Life of Jacke Wilton.
These novels rarely came to a conclusive end, and were sometimes continued in later volumes.


THE 18th CENTURY
Adventure novels
sentimental novels

John Locke
Adam Smith
Main works:
''The Wealth of Nations''
How self-interest and competition can lead to prosperity.
'
'The Theory of Moral Sentiments''
Theory of sympathy.

Philosopher, jurist and social reformer
He was involved in many political issues: for each of them he wrote a short essay.
Jeremy Bentham
Philosophical thought

Main works:
''Two Treatise of Government''
First ''Treatise of Government'':
demolition of the conception of divine right of the king.
Second ''Treatise of Government'':
how to build a civil society from the state of nature.
''Essay Concerning Human Understanding''
Theory about the origins and limits of human knowledge.
The Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution began in England in the middle of the 18th century.
The main point of this transformation is the innovation given by the machines. These last changed the way to work, to trade and to live.

- Everyone started to work in factories : men were employed in iron and steel mills, women and children worked in textile factories. A lot of people worked together and the rhythm was very quick and forced by the machines. Another problem was that they had to work 16 hours a day and there wasn't any organization to protect them.

- The mass production of goods needed more customers to make money and fortune. Accordingly new roads and canals helped the expansion of trade. The use of the maritime transport made easy the trade across the ocean.

- In occasion of the industrial revolution and of the Enclosure Acts, the lower class had to move to the urban areas that became overcrowded. With the Enclosure Acts, a lot of little pieces of land were joined together under the property of some rich men, they became private. Many families of the lower class had to work very hard and to do many sacrifices to go on.
On the contrary, the middle and upper class gained more power and money.



During the 18th (1750-1790) there were several scientific discoveries

• 1687 → Newton published “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica”,
in which he stated the law of universal gravitation.

• 1764 → James Watt modified steam engine invented by the English mechanic, Newcomen.
His purpose was to create a machine that reduced the waste of steam.

• 1769 → Lavoisier stated the law of conservation of mass.

• 1790 → birth of the basics of the metric system. It proposed a quantity that could be produced at any time, this unit is called metre.

These discoveries led the English people of the Augustan Age to think of being able to rule in universe thanks to reason and rationality.

Scientific discoveries


In the 18th century the novel develops as literary genres.
the Adventure novel is characterized by events in which two notions emerge: the chance or unexpected occurrence, and danger or risk. Moreover adventures happen to individuals rather than to large-scale communities or societies. The origin of the adventure novel is in the medieval romance, in which there were knights errant.
Over the years adventure has had an evolution, many changes: from stories of knights in armour to stories of high-tech espionages. But adventure fiction often overlaps with other genres: war novels, crime novels, sea stories, spy stories, science fiction, fantasy, and Westerns.
The plot of an adventure novel focuses on the actions of the hero within the setting: a hero faces a first set of adventures before he met his lady. Then there is a separation, with a second set of adventures leading to a final reunion.

The Sentimental novel celebrates sentiment, sentimentalism and sensibility. These concepts developed in reaction to the rationalism of the Augustan Age, because they claimed that the power of feelings affects right actions. This genre presents scenes of affliction and tenderness and the plot displays emotions rather than action. It includes social trends of the time and the value of human life, humanism, because the literature focuses on weaker members of society as orphans and condemned criminals and allows readers to identify and have compassion with them. Therefore in the society grew sentimentalism and some laws changed: abolition of the death penalty and of slavery.

The main purpose of this kind of novels was to teach the lower and middle class the moral values stated by that society
1632 - 1704, England
1723 - 1790, Scotland
1748 - 1832, England

The novel is a short narration in prose with real and fantastic elements that often blend together.
The essential feature of the novel is its conveying a moral.
In Great Britain the rise of the novel dates at the beginning of 18th century with the publication of "Robinson Crusoe" by Daniel Defoe.
In this period there are some different kinds of novels:
Sentimental novels
: the term sentimental signified refined or elevated feeling. They are characterized by emotionalism and their main aim is to teach the moral values to the lower class. The main novels of this kind are "Clarissa" and "Pamela" by Richardson.
Adventure novels
: this genre is a narrative genre characterized by a plot and chronological jumps that make articulated the typical sequence of narrative texts. Its main purpose is to represent the English men of the time as the ones able to make their own fortune, able to survive the most dreadful events due to their courage and self-confidence. An example is "Robinson Crusoe" by Defoe.
Picaresque novels:
the requirements for a picaresque novel are apparently length, loosely linked episodes almost complete in themselves, intrigue, fights, amorous adventure.
Gothic novels
: the atmosphere of a Gothic novel is expected to be dark, tempestuous, ghostly, full of madness, outrage, superstition, and the spirit of revenge.

The Birth of the Novel
The novel is a short narration in prose with real and fantastic elements that often blend together.
The essential feature of the novel is its being short and its conveying a moral.
In Great Britain the rise of the novel dates at the beginning of 18th century with the publication of "Robinson Crusoe" by Daniel Defoe.
In this period there are some different kinds of novels:
Sentimental novels
: the term sentimental signified refined or elevated feeling. Their main aim is to teach the moral values to the lower class. The main novels of this kind are "Clarissa" and "Pamela" by Richardson.
Adventure novels
: this genre is a narrative genre characterized by a plot and chronological jumps that make articulated the typical sequence of narrative texts. Its main purpose is to represent the English men of the time as the ones able to make their own fortune, able to survive the most dreadful events due to their courage and self-confidence. An example is "Robinson Crusoe" by Defoe.
Picaresque novels
: the requirements for a picaresque novel are apparently length, loosely linked episodes almost complete in themselves, intrigue, fights, amorous adventures.. The driving force must come from a wild rejection of the settled bourgeois life.
Gothic novels
: the atmosphere of a Gothic novel is expected to be dark, tempestuous, ghostly, full of madness, outrage, superstition, and the spirit of revenge


What is journalism?
Journalism is a new form of literature, based on principles of truth, disclosure, and editorial independence. The contents were above all moderation, religious, political and broad commercial.
• When was it born?
It was born in the first part of the 18th, during the Augustan Age.
This period was characterized by tolerance, moderation and common sense. It searched for refine manners and introduce into life the rule of sweet reasonableness.
This era saw the emergence and the supremacy of the middle class with its moralising needs, sentimentalism, feelings and emotions, which influenced the literature of the later half of the eighteenth century.
• Which was the first journal?
Two men in particular contributed to the rise of journalism, Joseph Addison and Richard Steele, publishing the first two journals called “The Tatler” and “The Spectator”, in 1709-1714.
• Where did this phenomenon develop?
People were really interested in political activity. A number of clubs and Coffee houses came into existence, becoming the centers of fashionable and public life. The Coffee houses were dominated by both the parties and were the starting point of prominent writers, thinkers, artists, intellectuals and politicians. The discussions in the Coffee houses took place in polished, refined, elegant, easy and lucid style.
• Why did they need periodicals and journals?
Because the two political parties of the time used the services of literary men to propagate their ideologies and programs.
The two rising parties were:
- the Whigs. They stood for the pre-eminence of personal freedom and favoured the continuance of war because it contributed to their prosperity
- the Tories. They supported the royal Divine Right and refused foreign wars because they had to pay taxes to prolong them.
The politicians corrupted the authors to join one or the other political party and consequently, most of the writers showed a strong political inclination. This began an age of political pamphleteering and to get prominence in political struggle, both parties issued a large number of periodicals, mouthpieces of their respective political opinions.

Robinson Crusoe

PLOT:

Robinson Crusoe was born in a middle-class family and his father, who was a trade man, wanted him to become a trade man too.
Robinson was a nonconformist "Crusoe wants to see the world his father forbids it."

During a journey to procure slaves for some plantation owners, he shipwrecked on a desert island and he found himself completely alone. Before the ship sank, he took seeds, brandy, cognac and some tools (hammer, saw, screwdriver) from the ship. In order to survive he built a raft and with a rope he could bring all the things to the shore.

In 24 years of permanence in the island, he found out only a group of native cannibals, that were trying to kill one of them. Robinson shot them and saved the unlucky native in danger, who decided to become his slave forever as a gesture of gratitude. Crusoe accepted his will and gave him the name “Friday”, as the day they met.

One day a ship was sailing near the island and, in the moment in which he realised that the sailors had mutinied
against their captain, he took the chance to gain a lift for Friday and him to come back home helping restore order in the ship.

When he returned to England, he discovered he was rich thanks to his sugar plantations, and finally he married a widow.

Here it is the perfect “happy ending” and the notion that English men can rule the whole universe.

THEMES
Man of Business
Society and class: The 18th century- neoclassicism is based on a big word: rationality, reason. Man is able to rule the universe.
The values of the time were the self-confidence, the faith in man and in reason and the idea of “Homo faber fortunae suae”.
It’s up to the man build up his greatness: the more the man learns the more the man thinks of being God.
Referring to the novel, the island become the own little society of Crusoe, and this underlines the importance of giving
a social order.
The family of Robinson belongs to the middle-class, that doesn’t experience the extremes of luxury and poverty and represents
the world of trade of that time.

Man of Nature
Man and the natural world: Crusoe believes himself to be on the head of the social order and he looks the island as something
from which take value. He manage the situation in nature as in the world of the trade.

Man of Reason
Organisation skills, rationality, importance of trade, optimism: These are the four keys of the novel and highlights the characteristics of
a typical English man who uses the reason to survive.


Man as a King
Faith in man, sense of superiority: Robinson Crusoe feels as if he owns the island and anything on the island or anything else
that comes into contact with the Island. He frequently calls it his island and refers to himself as "King" or "Governour".
The sense of superiority is a consequence of a strong self-esteem, common in the English man in the 18th century.

CHARACTERS

• Friday: He’s the first person Crusoe introduces in the social order of the island and imposes the English education. He’s the subordinate of Crusoe, and in fact he calls him “master”; this world is a political symbol of racial injustice in a modern world.
• Robinson Crusoe: He’s the main character of the story and identifies the typical English man. He’s proud of being English and he believes in his capability as head of what happens in the world. Crusoe has never been interested in portraying himself as a hero in his own narration.

If Crusoe represents the first colonial mind, then Friday represents all the natives of America, Asia and Africa who would later be oppressed in the age of European imperialism.

Picaresque novels
The picaresque novel, a reaction against the absurd unrealities and idealism of the pastoral, sentimental, and chivalric novels, represents the beginnings of modern Realism.
The picaresque novel usually uses a first-person narrative and has an episodic structure, as the 'pícaro' recounts his adventures in the service of one master after another. The 'picaro' is a cynical and amoral rascal who has adventures among people from all social classes and professions.
The picaro’ s narrative becomes an ironic or satirical survey of the hypocrisies and corruptions of society. The authors attacked political, religious, and military matters.
The picaresque novel originated in Spain. The tone of the picaresque novel is hard, cynical, skeptical, often bitter.

Sovreign: Queen Ann was born in 1665, her kingdom was from 1702 to 1714 the year of her death. She was the queen after her sister and after the English revolution, in fact she was protestant, she had not children so when she died the throne was under her far cousin.

During Queen's Ann kingdom there was the industrial revolution and also the birth of a new social class called middle-class, the Whigs, this new class was very important because it allowed the progress of trades. The most important trade of this period was the trade of slaves. During this period England was in an age of prosperity and welfare.

The Tories were the supporters of the monarchy and big landowners. Now they are the conservative Party. The Whigs were those who defended the Parliament and protestants; but they were against the Anglican Church, now this party is called Liberal Party. The Tories were rich traders and aristocrats on the contrary the Whigs were little tradesmen and shopkeepers.

In 1707 there was the fusion of Scotland and England, the Scottish Parliament and the English Parliament were merged together and there was the birth of the Union Jack's flag. The new flag had the Saint George cross and the Saint Andreas Cross (symbol of the two Governements).
Historical Background
The social setting
The 18th century saw the establishment of modern political parties, the growth of the richness in England and the beginning of the industrial revolution.

Women’s participation in these processes was indirect and the life of English women were radically affected by these developments.
We can see three social and economic changes:
- the distribution of the population, increasing from country to city and from South to North. Many cities like London, Manchester, Sheffield and Birmingham had a population boom.
- personal gain and success: many entrepreneurs rises from the lower middle classes.
- passage from a cottage or survival economy to a mass economy.

The Gothic novel

This kind of novel has prevailing atmosphere of mystery and terror. Called gothic because its imaginative impulse was drawn from medieval buildings and ruins, some novels used such settings as castles or monasteries.

The Gothic novel took shape mostly in England from 1790 to 1830 and falls the category of romantic literature and it could be seen as a description of a fallen world. The setting has an atmosphere of horror and dread, but also focus on the deterioration of its world.
Gothic hero becomes a sort of archetype and he is always isolated either voluntary or involuntary. Gothic novel is also characterized by fears of murder, rape, sin.
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