Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

French Revolution

Global 10 Fairport High School
by

Gayle Rachford

on 27 October 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of French Revolution

Revolution ~ Phase 1
The Estates General
Revolution - Phase 2
The Reign of Terror

Phase 3 - Napoleon
The
Reign of Terror
ended
poetically
on
July 28, 1794
at the
guillotine
scaffold with the beheading of
Robespierre
. The former French
subjects
, who now considered themselves
citizens
, tired of high prices for basic necessities like bread and salt, shifted their opinion of the Revolution and began to call for a more
moderate
tone in the
National Assembly
. The French government adopted a
bicameral legislature
and five moderate
bourgeoisie
men, formed an
executive committee
called
The Directory
. Because France continued to face a
critical
military threat from her Austrian, Prussian, and English neighbors, The Directory appointed a new general to lead the French forces to victory - his name was
Napoleon Bonaparte
.
Maximillien Robespierre and the Jacobins instituted the Reign of Terror through the Committee of Public Safety on September 5th, 1793. The Terror came to a conclusion on July 28th, 1794 after the guillotine claimed 16,594 lives while another 25,000 to 100,000 French citizens were executed in mass purges across France.
1789
The French Revolution
17
89
- 17
99

vs.
Pre-Revolutionary French Social Hierarchy
The
Old Regime
aka..."Ancient Regime"
FIRST ESTATE
The Catholic

Clergy
0.5
% of the population (130,000 people)
owned
10
% of all French lands
paid
0
% in taxes
collected "
tithes
" (required donations) from peasants
provided people with
education
&
relief services (
charity
)
King Louis
XVI
(...the 16th!)
absolute monarch of France
ruled 17
74
- 17
92
in return for loyalty, awarded "
privileges
" (jobs & government positions) to the
FIRST
&
SECOND ESTATES
SECOND ESTATE
The French
Nobility
- relatives & friends of the royal family
1.5% of the population

(390,000 people)
owned 20-25% of the land in France
paid 0% in taxes - enjoyed "
liberty
"
demanded
grain
,
livestock
, &
labor
from
peasants
feudalism:
an arrangement of governance whereby individuals, called
peasants
, are provided with security and
protection
by a land-owning
lord
in exchange for a portion of
grain
, tax, or
labor
.
this was the state of society during the Old Regime
THIRD ESTATE
The
Commoners
of France
98
% of the population (25,480,000 people)
owned 65% of the land
paid
100
% of the
taxes
- "
regressive
" tax system
NOT entitled to
privileges
divided into three groups based on employment & wealth
owed
tithes
,
corvee
, and the
taille
to the
clergy
,
nobility
, and the
king
Bourgeoisie
:
middle

class
citizens of France's
Third Estate
-
appx. 4,680,000 people
bankers
factory owners
merchants
professionals
skilled
artisans
Some members of the
bourgeoisie
were as wealthy as the nobility, educated, and believed firmly in
Enlightenment
ideals such as
liberty
and
equality
BUT they were NOT entitled to
privileges
of the
First
or
Second Estates
.
The 2nd group of the
THIRD ESTATE
...
urban
laborers -
tradespeople
,
apprentices
,
servants

poverty
stricken
often
unemployed
relied on flour to make
bread
for food
The 3rd group of the
THIRD ESTATE
...
agricultural
peasants
made up
80%
of the population

(20,800,000 people)
paid
50%
of their income to the nobles, clergy, and the King's
intendants

discontent
with their low status and high tax burden
The
French Revolution
marks a critical turning point in the history of
Europe
. From the 5th to the 15th century (that's 1000 years!), Europeans lived as
vassals
on the lands of the
emerging

nobility
. Their daily safety was constantly threatened because of
political instability
and local
rivalries
between
landlords
. They needed
security
but had only their
labor
and
crops
to give in return.

As the
Age of Discovery
and the
Renaissance
created the opportunity for people to move into trading cities and work for themselves,
medieval feudal
society began to break down. The French Revolution symbolizes the final
transition
between
feudal
and
modern
European society.
Third Estate carries the First and Second Estates
First Estate supported by Third Estate
Second Estate supported by the Third Estate
Context for Revolution
Enlightenment Ideals
right to keep
property
right to speak and publish freely
right to representative government
right to justice by
trial
right to
revolution
Economic Crisis
Social Injustice & Inequality
Marie Antoinette, Queen of France
, became the symbol of 18th century Bourbon excess. She was married to Louis XVI at 14 years old as part of a
political alliance
between the French royal family and the Austrian Habsburgs - traditional enemies - in repayment for French loyalty to Austria during the
Seven Years' War
~ 1756-1763 (
French and Indian War
, here).
Empress Maria Theresa
was Marie Antoinette's mother!
Marie Antoinette
spoke
almost
no French
,
borrowed
money from the Treasury to
gamble
and enjoy
lavish fashions
, did not give birth to an heir for the first 7 years of marriage, and remained completely isolated in the Palace at Versailles -
disconnected
entirely from the troubles of the French
commoners
.
In the 18th century, the average French urban worker and peasant ate 2 lbs. of
bread
each day. The price of flour had a direct impact on the vast majority of French people. When the
price doubled
between 1788-1789,
angry mobs
of people
looted
grain stores, flour mills and bakeries in search of the basic ingredients to make bread. Coupled with a severe winter season, many suffered from
starvation
.
Deeply in debt after defeats during the
Seven Years' War
under Louis XV, the Treasury was
bankrupt
. France lost many of its territories in North America, including Canada, Louisiana, and portions of the Caribbean. Louis XVI was forced to raise
taxes
in order to prevent the collapse of his government.
The last great outbreak of The
Black Plague
in France occurred between 1720-1721 and killed
100,000
people. After The Plague ran its course in Europe,
populations
recovered rapidly
and
more people than ever before were demanding
resources
.
Seeking revenge for his grandfather's (
Louis XV
) losses to Britain during the Seven Years' War, Louis XVI sent supplies, ammunition, and weapons to the American revolutionaries at a cost of 5 million livres. One livre was originally equal 1 lb. of silver but the French Treasury overproduced them, causing hyper-inflation. Some estimates put the French financial contribution to the American Revolution at 5,000,000 livres - at $4 p/livre, after considering inflation, we can estimate Louis XVI spent more than
$260,000,000
helping the
Americans
defeat the
British
.
Seven Years' War
Members of the Third Estate had no rights or privileges. Many were sent to the dungeons of
Bastille
Prison in Paris for minor infractions or complaints, where
torture
and limitless imprisonment were commonplace.
Bubonic Plague subsides...
Forced to raise
taxes
to replenish the Treasury, Louis XVI called together
The

Estates General
. This
legislative body
had not
convened
for
175
years! They met at
Versailles
on May 5, 1789 to discuss the state of the French economy and debate the "
vingtiemes
" - a tax up to 3/20ths of income on the
Second
and
Third Estates
.
The National Assembly forms...
Conservatives
Moderates
Liberals
The
Third Estate
had a
considerable
problem at the
Estates General
meeting.... the First and Second Estate could always unite their votes to
out-vote
the Third Estate! What do you think they might decide to do when asked to vote on the new law to raise taxes?
Moderates
, also known as "
centrists
", were interested in some
reforms
but wanted most to take a course that would not lead to outright
revolution
.

They sat in the
MIDDLE
of the Assembly Hall.
Assembly
members who were interested most in
preserving

monarchy
and living the most productive life under the traditions of the
Old Regime
.

They sat on the
RIGHT
side of the Assembly Hall.
Assembly members who were most interested in totally
reforming
the government, including a call for revolution, sat on the
LEFT
of the Assembly Hall.
Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes argued that the representatives of The Third Estate should bypass the
veto
power of the First and Seconds Estates in the new legislature and rename themselves, the "
National Assembly
".
The Third Estate delegates accepted his suggestion on June 17, 1789, sweeping away absolute
monarchy
and beginning the essential path to revolution.
Originally a
moderate
faction of the 1789
Estates General
at
Versailles
, the
Jacobin Club
was very much like a
political party
that discussed issues related to
government policy
and
advocated
for specific
reforms
in French society. Made up of
bourgeoisie
men and
liberal
aristocrats, they actually supported
monarchy
until the eve of the Revolution. By 1792, and active in the
National Assembly
, all
conservative
-leaning members were excused from their membership and in 1793 the Jacobins took over the government under the leadership of
Robespierre
.
The Jacobins had approximately 420,000 members throughout France and wanted:
to discuss policies that would be
implemented
by the
National Assembly
in advance of their meetings

to support the
Declaration of the Rights of Man
- France's revolutionary constitution

to cooperate and communicate with other political clubs in France in order to build alliances and work toward preserving the Revolution
Today, we call a political party's policy goals a "
platform
". The Jacobins's platform was:

republican
government instead of absolute monarchy
widespread education
universal
suffrage
separation of church and state
Increasingly, the Jacobins called for the unquestioned end to divine right monarchy - King Louis XVI was their ultimate enemy who opposed their platform for reform.
The Jacobins
Maximilien de
Robespierre
The Committee of Public Safety
Formed in the spring of 1793 by the National Convention, the Committee became the primary seat of government in France by the summer of that year. Made up of 12 members, it controlled the military, judicial, and legislative powers of government. It's essential goal was to protect the new French Republic from foreign attacks - Austria, Prussia, Britain - and internal sabotage or rebellion. Robespierre was its leader from August 1793 through July of 1794.
Known as "The Incorruptible" by his supporters and a "blood thirsty dictator" by his critics, Robespierre was a dedicated revolutionary and disciple of Rousseau who lead the Reign of Terror between 1793 and 1794.
"Let us be in revolution, because everywhere counter-revolution is being woven by our enemies. The blade of the law should hover over all the guilty." ~ Robespierre
By the fall of 1793, Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety was arresting and executing "enemies of the Revolution" on a massive scale. Anyone could be accused of sabotage, association with an enemy of the state, or suspected of hoarding grain and sent to the guillotine.
"The government in a revolution is the despotism of liberty against tyranny." ~ MR, 1794
16,594 French citizens were guillotined - while an additional 25,000 to 100,000 were swept up in the Terror and executed across France. 72% of those who perished were peasants in the former Third Estate.
August 1792, Louis XVI was officially arrested for treason and conspiring with the Austrian Hapsburgs. He was tried, found guilty, and on January 21, 1793, Louis Capet - the former King of France - was sent to the guillotine as a traitor of the French people. Robespierre believed that if the Revolution was to live, then the king had to die.
1795
1801
1799
1803
1804
1805
1806
1812
1815
Napoleon leads his troops against a band of royalists who attack the National Convention in October, 1795. He is hailed as a hero of the Revolution!
November, 1799 - Napoleon seizes control of the National Convention and his supporters in the legislature vote to dissolve The Directory. France, now ruled by three
consuls
, saw Napoleon claim the first seat and assume the powers of a
dictator
.
Coup d'Etat = blow to the state
1800
Austria, Prussia, and Britain united their efforts to invade France, prevent further revolution across Europe and drive Napoleon from power. A master of military strategy, however, Napoleon led his troops to victory. By 1802, Europe was at peace and Napoleon returned home to hold a
plebiscite
to approve a new constitution for France.
Inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment and the ideals of the French Revolution,
Toussaint L'Ouverture
seized control of Saint Domingue - Haiti, today - in 1789. Napoleon, desperate for tax revenues to prevent the bankruptcy of his government, decided to send troops to reclaim French control of the sugar trade and establish a renewed foothold in the Americas.
In 1801, Napoleon's troops were greeted with some enthusiasm by the island's revolutionary government, but when L'Ouverture issued an independent constitution for the Haitian people which
abolished slavery
, Napoleon ordered him arrested. A prisoner of the French government, L'Ouverture stated on his prison ship to Europe,
"In overthrowing me you have cut down in Saint Domingue only the trunk of the tree of liberty; it will spring up again from the roots, for they are many and they are deep."
Although he died in a French prison in 1803, the remaining French forces in Saint Domingue were defeated and forced to retreat in the same year.
Unable to secure
consistent
revenues from Haiti, Napoleon negotiated the sale of French lands west of the newly founded United States in the
Louisiana Territory
in 1803. President Thomas Jefferson eagerly purchased the land for the bargain price of $15,000,000 - more than doubling the size of his country with the stroke of his pen. Napoleon was pleased to have the money and helped to create a permanent force in the Americas to prevent British
hegemony
for the rest of known history.
Transfer of Louisiana Territory to the Americans, 1804
One of Napoleon's strengths was establishing law and order for the French citizens. He created a uniform set of laws that applied to all people in France called the
Napoleonic Code
. Much like Hobbes' philosophy of government, it limited individual liberties in favor of strong but
liberal
authority. The Code abolished the remaining feudal laws of the Old Regime by:
forbidding privilege based on birth
allowing freedom of religion
declared that government jobs would go to those who were most qualified rather than to those who had the most influential connections
However, the Code also restricted freedom of the press and attempted to restore slavery in France's Caribbean colonies.
Still eager to fill the French treasury and permanently prevent all rivals from invading France, Napoleon crowned himself
Emperor of the French
and took the name Napoleon I in 1804.
He annexed:
the Netherlands because of their wealthy trading ports,
parts of northern Italy to secure access to the Mediterranean Sea
set up a puppet government loyal only to him in Switzerland - effectively controlling the very heart of continental Europe.
Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon wins continental Europe!
Russia - defeated
Austria - defeated
Napoleon loses the sea!
England - victorious!
French fleet - defeated!
Spanish fleet - defeated!
Napoleon established a trade
blockade
in 1806, where the French Navy attempted to prevent trade and communication between Great Britain and the rest of
continental Europe
. He called his plan the "
Continental System
" and intended to destroy Britain's profitable manufacturing economy. However, the plan was largely
ineffective
because France had lost many of her ships in the
Battle of Trafalgar
and the Brits were able to stop and search ships sailing from the United States, then confiscate the goods on board. These actions eventually sparked the
War of 1812
between the UK and the USA!
The
Continental System

mandated
that all nations allied to France must NOT trade with Great Britain under any circumstances. Alexander I, Russia's Czar, continued his dealings in trading grain with the UK and for that offense, Napoleon invaded Russia in June, 1812.
"No more peace with Napoleon!" he cried,
"He or I, I or He: we cannot longer reign together!"
~ Alexander I, Czar of Russia, 1812
Napoleon invades Russia!
Although Napoleon's army was 420,000 strong, the Russians adopted a "
scorched earth
" retreat policy and destroyed everything they could in advance of Napoleon's forces. The Russian army set Moscow on fire, themselves, knowing that the French forces were closing in on their most populated city.
As late fall arrived, with little remaining food and almost no supplies, Napoleon led his forces back to France but his Grand Army arrived home with only 10,000 soldiers still alive.
Napoleon's demise...
Following Napoleon's
disastrous
retreat from Russia in the fall of 1812, his Grand Army was severely weakened. Many of the replacement troops were poorly trained and unprepared for battle. After experiencing defeats by the united forces of Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden between 1813 and 1814, Napoleon was humiliated when Frederick William III of Prussia and Alexander I, Czar of Russia marched their troops into the city of Paris!
Forced into exile in 1814, Napoleon plotted his return to France from a small Mediterranean island, called Elba, off the west coast of Italy.
Napoleon escaped in March of 1815 and by June 18th, he was ready to attack his enemies near the village of
Waterloo
, in present day Belgium.
Although the fighting was fierce, the British and Prussian armies overpowered Napoleon's forces and finally defeated the French by the afternoon of June 20, 1815.
The soldier who wore this armor suffered a direct hit from a canon ball at the Battle of Waterloo!
In 1815, Klemens von
Metternich
, Foreign Minister of Austria, lead the
Congress of Vienna
toward restoring order to the European continent following Napoleon's years of warfare against his neighbors.
Metternich's primary goals were:
prevent future French aggression
restore the balance of power between European nations
restore the royal families of the Old Regime
The Congress of Vienna:
united the Austrian Netherlands and the Dutch Republic to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands
39 independent German states united to become the German Federation - led by Austria
Switzerland gained its independence
the Kingdom of Sardinia gained Genoa, moving Italy closer to a unified nation-state
Napoleon died of gastric cancer in 1826, while banished in exile on the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
Rise and Fall of Napoleon
Louis XVI
and the Second Estate Bourbon nobility
The vast majority of French people - The Third Estate
The Catholic Church
and the First Estate Clergy
The French Revolution
Old Regime
...prior to 1789
...1789-1799
The Estates General
Equality, Liberty, Fraternity!
...until the Second French Republic was established in 1848!
In sum...
Waterloo!
Trafalgar!
French Revolution
Part 4 of 9: 10min
TIME: Late 18th century PLACE: France
Absolute monarchy - Bourbon Family
Tricolour Flag - French Republic
Full transcript