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Merich Barlas

on 8 April 2017

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design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
 Oxford English Dictionary:
Two meanings of space:
1. Time or duration
2. Area or extension (more common definition)

Space in Urban Design
I. Concept of Space
Urban Aesthetics
At the beginning of the 3rd millennium, when urban settlements become more and more crowded due to the work and life conditions they offer, urban aesthetics is becoming increasingly imperative. This is all the more important as population growth, in some cities has influenced directly the city’s architecture, determining a growth of residential constructions, which, seldom, did not appeal to the “laws of beauty”.
 Two main categories of space
1. Mental Space (experiential)- image of physical space
2. Physical Space (existential)- defined and continuous, unbounded extensions in three directions, regarded as void of matter or without reference to it

Three Types of Space
1. Place-space- major spaces that portray a sense of definite location or position
2. Path-space- major transition spaces which are directional; corridor, connector, passageway.
3. Transition- space- minor spaces which process a change from one condition to another(between two destination, between exterior and interior, between nature and buildings)

Proxemics is the study of measurable distances between people as they interact. This has something to do with the study of our use of space and how various differences in that use can make us feel more relaxed or anxious.
• How do we understand what people want out of spaces they use?
• What kind of spaces do we aspire to?

Concept of Aesthetics
• Aesthetics in urban design refers to the creative arrangement of the elements of a town in a beautiful and functional manner.
• Order and beauty in a town are a necessity, not an afterthought…..they are as much a prerequisite to human health as is fresh air.

• In relation to public spaces and places aesthetics relates to the attractiveness of an area and in particular the combined effects of various elements such as the quality of the architectural and landscape design, the quality of views and vistas, and the arrangement of elements such as furniture in the public realm. It requires a connection between architectural and landscape quality, the experiencing of attractions, and the use of the city.
• Attractiveness of the neighbourhood environment is associated with overall experience and use such as walking, cycling, viewing and conversation. If a neighbourhood is attractive it invites people to use and enjoy its public spaces and places and to feel safe in doing so
• When people use community spaces and associated assets they feel part of a community and develop a sense of place. These two elements are important in promoting wellbeing as they can form part of an individual’s identity, increase an individual’s perceived quality of life and motivate people to be even more active and participate in group programs.

Extracted form:
harmony between buildings and nature….e.g consider basic slopes, angle of hills, vegetation/tree canopies, and rock outcrops. Reflects dominant and pervasive features of nature

Vistas and site supremacy:
view of landscape from the city…beautifully framed countryside (panorama)

space markers /symbolgy/ ornamentation/detail e.g towers and minarets; landmarks; accent of urban landscape and skyline

profound impact of cities on the visitor who traverses long, crowded streets/water.

Colour and light:
choice of colour to reflect aesthetic sensibility; quality of natural light an important visual factor.

proximity to water and possible interplay a natural asset; water edges, harbours, shorelines, islands, canals e.t.c

form and relationships of angles, lines, curves e.t.c

Human scale
: how each inhabitant would use space and how they would feel in it.

How to Achieve
• Create attractive and welcoming streets by designing active, interesting and welcoming street frontages with contiguous development
• Use buildings to frame public places and form a distinct street frontage which creates a pleasing pedestrian edge and human scale

• Planting of broad canopy trees along streets to provide shade, improve the visual amenity of the street and create a pleasant environment for pedestrians and cyclists
• Creation of stimulating and attractive routes by designing walking and cycling routes to, and around, local landmarks and points of interest.
• Parks and open spaces designed to provide pleasant places for people to sit, meet and talk.

• Inactive development, such as carparks, service areas, and blank facades fronting streets and pedestrian and cycling routes
• Spaces with no seating or other elements for sitting
• Street verges with insufficient space for street tree planting and public furniture.
• Poorly maintained parks and open space

The pattern of the city is the way how different functions and elements of the settlement form are distributed and mixed together spatially. It can be measured by the size of its grain. Grain is fine when similar elements or functions are widely dispersed throughout the district without forming any large clusters. On the other hand, grain is coarse if different elements and functions are segregated from each other in a way that extensive areas of one thing are separated from extensive areas of other things
form and structure of urban areas

Physical Image v/s Functional Image- Image of the City ( paths, edges, nodes, landmarks, and districts)

Form-Function Relationship

Main Variations of urban form and structure:
Linear, radial, grid, cluster e.t.c

Objectives of urban form
(includes growth; Meaning and identity e.t.c)

Growth and decline
(urban sprawl which describes how people move from central urban areas to low-density areas outside of the city; the deterioration of the inner city often caused by lack of investment and maintenance. It is often but not exclusively accompanied by a decline in population numbers, decreasing economic performance and unemployment.)

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