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Chapter 6

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Michele Oliver

on 25 June 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 6

Quantitative vs. Qualitative Approaches
Quantitative
Focuses on specific behaviors that can be easily quantified
Assigns numerical values to responses and measure
Uses large samples
Conclusions are based on the statistical analysis of data

Types of Observational Approaches -
Naturalistic Observations
What is it?
Researchers make observations in a natural setting over a period of time, using a variety of techniques to collect information. It has its roots in anthropology and is used to describe and understand how people in a social or cultural setting live, work, and experience the setting

Types of Observational Approaches -
Systematic Observations
While Naturalistic Observations work better when there are no clearly defined hypotheses, Systematic Observations work better when you have a specific hypothesis or expect to observe specific behaviors. These behaviors are then coded, where you can assign numbers to observed behaviors.
Types of Observational Approaches -
Case Studies
Case studies provide a description of an individual. They don't necessarily involve naturalistic observations. A psychobiography is a type of case study in which a researcher applies psychological theory to explain the life of an individual. Case studies are valuable in informing us of conditions that are rare or unusual.


Archival research involves using previously compiled information to answer research questions. The information can come from the following sources:

Statistical Records
Survey Archives
Written and Mass Communication Records

Archival Research involves a coding system and can address questions that can't be addressed in no other ways. Limitations do exist and they include the possibility of inaccurate sources and difficulty in obtaining adequate sources.
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Chapter 6
Observational Methods
Qualitative
Uses Observational measures
Small groups & limited settings
Describe or capture themes that emerge from the data
Data are non-numerical and expressed in language and/or images
Conclusions are based on interpretations drawn by the investigator

How would one do it?
Techniques include: Observing, interviewing, and surveying documents with the following goals in mind:
Describe the setting, events, and persons
Analyze the categories that emerge
The researcher must interpret what occurred
Then generate hypotheses that help explain the data


Strengths and Limitations?
Although the main strength is that you observe behaviors that are authentic and genuine, there are some limitations as well.
They are...
time consuming
less useful when studying well-defined hypotheses under precisely specific conditions
constantly requiring reanalysis and revision of hypotheses


Types of Observational Approaches -
Archival Research
Full transcript