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Anatomy: The Skeletal System

Anatomy Project
by

Kortney Hudak

on 27 February 2013

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Transcript of Anatomy: The Skeletal System

Osteoporosis- loss of bone as osteoclasts become more active. Most common in females(generally light-complexioned) after menopause. Lack of calcium, physical exercise, and estrogen are all contributing factors.
Bone cancer- overactive osteoblasts, includes malignant (cancerous) and benign (noncancerous) tumors on the bone (Bone Cancer).
Arthritis- Inflammation of the joint, cartilage breaks down, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness Diseases Includes: cranium, facial bones (maxilla, mandible, sphenoid, etc.), vertebral column (Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar vertebrae) sternum, ribs, sacrum, and coccyx The Axial Skeleton Synovial Joints Types of Synovial joints: Fibrous:
-Sutures in the skull
-limited movement
Cartilagenous:
-intervertebral discs
-pubic symphysis
-bones are attached by cartilage
Synovial:
-hip (ball and socket)
-elbow (hinge)
-lots of movement Classes of Joints Compact bone - osteons cemented together, dense
Central canals - blood vessels nourish cells of spongy bone
Osteocytes communicate through canaliculi
Extracellular matrix of bone is composed of collagen and inorganic salts Microscopic Structure Bone marrow - produces red blood cells, held in the medullary cavity of bone
Spongy bone - lightweight, shock absorption
Compact bone: continuous ECM, most present in diaphysis
Medullary cavity: lies within the diaphysis, lined with endosteum Bone Structures cont. Periosteum-connective tissue surrounding the bone
Epiphyses-ends of long bones with articular cartilage
Compact and spongy bone are both strong and resistant to bending
Aids in shock absorption
Hyaline Cartilage=ARTICULAR CARTILAGE Bone Structures Bones and other Connective Tissues “Bones shape, support, and protect body structures. They also aid body movements, house tissues that produce blood cells, and STORE VARIOUS INORGANIC SALTS” (Shier et. al.) Function By: Kortney Hudak and Andrea Murphy The Skeletal System Thank you for watching! Homeostasis and Negative Feedback Mechanisms Includes: Pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, upper and lower limbs

Specific bones: humerus, radius, ulna, scapulae, clavicles, ilium, ischium, pubis, femur, tibia, fibula, carpals, tarsals, phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals The Appendicular Skeleton Intramembranous Bone Formation Forms within hyaline cartilage
Hyaline cartilage makes up the primary (diaphysis) & secondary ossification centers (epiphyses)
Epiphyseal plate lengthens until ossified, in between the 1st and 2nd ossification centers, UNTIL BOTH CENTERS MEET Endochondral Bone Formation Long bones Plane
Hinge
Saddle
Pivot
Ball-and-Socket
Condyloid The principal supportive structure of the body Makes free movement for the upper and lower limbs possible Works Cited "Bone Cancer." National Cancer Institute, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. <http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Sites-Types/bone>.

"Bone Cancer: MedlinePlus." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

"Feet and Osteoporosis - Healing Feet - NYC Podiatrist & Foot Doctor." Healing Feet NYC Podiatrist Foot Doctor RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

"Get Help Online!" Arthritis Knee Exercise: The Natural Treatment for Arthritis. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

"Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology, 11th Edition (Shier)." Textbook Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

"Skeleton and Joints | The Ball Is in Your Court." The Ball Is in Your Court. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. -Bones
-Cartilage
-Tendons
-Ligaments Bones Ligaments Cartilage Tendons Rigid connective tissue
Provides framework, support, and attachments
Protects underlying tissue
Made up of chondrocytes inside of lacunae
ARTICULAR = HYALINE Most rigid connective tissue
Abundant in collagenous fibers
Supports body structures and provides attachments for muscles
Made up of osteocytes Connects bone to bone
Another form of dense connective tissue (containing many collagenous fibers) Connects muscle to bone
Form of dense connective tissue (containing many collagenous fibers) Osteoblasts form, or build bone
Osteoclasts break or "crush" bone
Mature bone cells=osteocytes (formerly osteons) Made up of membrane-like layers of connective tissues
Appears at sites of future bone
Osteoblasts become active within membranes
Progenitor cells enlarge and differentiate into osteoblasts Bone Cells The 17 Joint Movements Circumduction
Pronation
Supination
Eversion
Inversion
Retraction
Protraction
Elevation
Depression Flexion
Extension
Dorsiflexion
Plantar flexion
Hyperextension
Abduction
Adduction
Rotation Works Cited cont. Shier, David., Jackie Butler, and Ricki Lewis. Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 9th ed, New York: McGraw Hill. 126-159. Print."Thread: Finally Hit 0% Body Fat (pics)." Bodybuilding.com Forums RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. Fig07.28 Additional Questions: 1. Osteoporosis is more common in:
a. Women
b. Men
c. Post-menopausal women
d. both a and c 2. What are the two types of tumors?
a. non cancerous and cancerous
b. big and small
c. contagious and non contagious
d. none of the above 3. Rheumatoid is more common in:
a. children
b. teenagers
c. adults
d. all of the above 4. Primary bone cancer is
a. common
b. rare
c. present in all people
d. nonexistent 5. What are the diseases we talked about?
a. arthritis
b. bone cancer
c. osteoporosis
d. all of the above
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