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The Brain

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by

Jenna Hansen

on 12 January 2014

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Transcript of The Brain

Traumatic Brain Injury
Affects
The ability..... to think clearly and normally, reason rationally, or remember things whether short term or long term- amnesia
One or more of the five senses
Language: communication, expression, and understanding
Emotion: depression, aggression, personality, anxiety, loss of social appropriateness
Comas or even brain death can occur in severe cases
Treatment for Headaches
Headache treatments may include:
- painkillers
- combination drugs
- acupuncture
- headache diary
- hot or cold showers
- changes in lifestyle or diet
- stressing less
- yoga ("Headache")
Meningitis
Definition: Meningitis is an inflammation of the coverings around the brain and spinal cord ("Meningitis").
Testing for Meningitis
"Lumbar puncture is the most important lab test for meningitis. It is also called a spinal tap. A sample of fluid is removed from the spine and tested to see if it contains organisms that cause the illness."

"Your doctor may also order other tests, such as blood tests, a CT scan, or an MRI" ("Meningitis," 2013).

The Brain
Prevalence & History
At least 1.7 million TBI's occur each year
1/3 of injury related deaths
75% are only mild concussions
More prisoners experience TBI's than the general population
High school sports with the most TBI's are football and girl's soccer
Hospitals treat 173,285 adolescents each year with sport and recreation related TBI's
71% of sport and recreation related TBI's were to males
Causes
Common in sports, high risk activities, and car accidents
Caused by a bump, blow, jolt, or any injury to the head
The severity of a TBI depends on the severity of the bump/blow
It ranges from mild to severe with different complications within that range
Headache
Definition: "A headache involves pain in the head which can arise from many disorders or may be a disorder in and of itself" ("Headache").

Headache Prevention
Some headaches may be prevented by:

Symptoms:
*Headache *Dizziness *Confusion *Fatigue *Nausea *Vomiting
*Loss of consciousness *Sensitivity to light and sound
Treatment
Mild- rest, monitoring, medication
Severe- surgery to remove clots, repair fractures, or relieve pressure
Rehabilitation- physical therapy and mental stimulation
In some cases a coma may be induced through medication to allow the brain to heal and rest from the trauma
By: Jenna, Giovanna, and Kialey
12/16/13
Period 8
Works Cited
Headache. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/headache
4 Types of Headache
1) Vascular headaches.
2) Muscle contraction (tension) headaches.
3) Traction headaches.
4) Inflammatory headaches (Nordqvist, 07).
- Avoiding triggering substances and situations.
- Employing alternative therapies, such as yoga and regular exercise.
- Identifying and eliminating any allergy-causing foods that may be linked to the headache ("Headache").
~ Tension headaches account for 90% of all headaches.
~ Headaches are largely prevalent in human beings. The majority of people have at least experienced a tension headache (Nordqvist, 07).
Prevalence:
Prevalence: Approximately 25,000 cases of bacterial meningitis occur annually in the USA. This is about 1 in 10,879 or 0.01% of the population ("Prevelance and incidence").
Meningitis. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://children.webmd.com/vaccines/tc/meningitis-topic-overview
Symptoms
- stiff and painful neck
- fever
- headache
- vomiting
- trouble staying awake
- seizures
-rash
Prevelance and incidence of meningitis. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/m/meningitis/prevalence.htm
1) Acute bacterial meningitis requires prompt treatment with intravenous antibiotics and, more recently, cortisone medications, to ensure recovery and reduce the risk of complications, such as brain swelling and seizures.
2) Treatment of viral meningitis usually includes:
*Bed rest
*Plenty of fluids
*Over-the-counter pain medications to help reduce fever and relieve body aches

Treatment
Treatments and drugs. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/meningitis/DS00118/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs
- Antibiotics, if you've come into close contact with someone who has had some kinds of bacterial meningitis
- Other vaccines
- Good hygiene, such as regular hand washing
- Not sharing food, drinks, or utensils ("Meningitis," 2013)

Prevention of Meningitis:
- Vaccines are available to prevent bacterial meningitis, but they don't prevent all types of the disease
Epilepsy
Signs & Symptoms
- Epilepsy causes convulsions. Which is an indicator that you could have epilepsy. Other symptoms are; falling and fumbling. Depending on the type of you have differs with the symptoms.
Causes
- Sever headaches
- brain infection or disease
- stroke
- oxygen deprivation
Anything that disrupts the brains natural circuitry.
Statistics
- In nearly two-thirds of people with epilepsy, a specific cause is never found
- Two-thirds of people with epilepsy, become seizure-free by taking their medication regularly.
Treatment
- Anti-seizure drugs are the most common.
- Ketogenic Diet
- VNS - "vangus nerve stimulation" or called "a pacemaker for the brain."
- Surgery
Precautions
- Certain activities are very dangerous for people with epilepsy. For example; losing consciousness while swimming, taking a bath, mountain biking, etc.

- Before driving a car they are required to be seizure-free for a certain amount of time ("Epilepsy," 2013).
Epilepsy. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/eilepsy/ss/slideshow-epilepsy-overview
Injury prevention & control: traumatic brain injury. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/
Nordqvist, C. (07, 06 13). What are headaches? what causes headaches?. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/73936.php
("Prevelance and incidence")
("Treatments and drugs," 2013 )
("Epilepsy," 2013 )
Prevention:
Avoid dangerous situations and use proper protection such as a seat belt, air bag, or helmet
("Injury prevention", 2013 )
("Injury prevention," 2013 )
("Injury prevention," 2013 )
("Injury prevention," 2013 )
("Epilepsy," 2013 )
("Epilepsy," 2013).
("Epilepsy," 2013 )
Types of TBI's
Concussion ( Mild TBI)
Severe TBI
Closed- caused by movement of the brain inside the skull
Penetrating- caused by a foreign object inside the skull
("Injury prevention", 2013 )
when an external force injures the brain
History

1859-1906:
Under the leadership of three English neurologists--John Hughlings Jackson, Russell Reynolds, and Sir William Richard Gowers--the modern medical era of epilepsy begins. In a study, Jackson defines a seizure as "an occasional, an excessive, and a disorderly discharge of nerve tissue on muscles." He also recognizes that seizures can alter consciousness, sensation, and behavior (Epilepsy.com, 2014).

Risk Reduction
- Vigorous exercise can reduce the risk of being diagnosed with Epilepsy (American Academy of Neurology, 2013).
Introduction
This presentation will be introducing and discussing injuries and conditions that pertain to the head/brain.

The following will be considered:
-Headaches
-Traumatic Brain Injury
-Meningitis
-Epilepsy
Diagnosis
Many headaches are minor, but some can be very dangerous if not treated.
Questions to ask about headaches include:
- frequency and duration
- when it occurs
- pain intensity and location
- possible triggers
- prior symptoms
There are several warning signs that indicate worse matters than a common tension headache. (Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 2013)
Prognosis
Analgesics, or pain killers, are most commonly used to resolve headaches.

A 2004 research study showed that people who have migraine headaches more often than once a month may be at increased risk for stroke (Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 2013).
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. (2013). Headache. Retrieved from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/headache
Epilepsy.com. (2014). History of epilepsy. Retrieved from https://www.epilepsy.com/epilepsy/history
American Academy of Neurology. (2013). Exercise may reduce the risk of epilepsy . Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130904203543.htm
(Mayo Clinic, Managing Meningitis - Mayo Clinic)
Mayo Clinic. (Photographer). (2012). Managing Meningitis - Mayo Clinic [Web Video]. Retrieved from
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