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The uses of Commas
Transcript of The uses of Commas
they are used to show division in a sentence, to separate items in a list, marks in numerals, and to separate types or levels of information in bibliographic and other data. I like pie, cake, and cookies. this principle can be used to avoid confusion as well.
My $10 million estate is to be split among my husband, daughter, son and nephew.
Omitting the comma after "son" would indicate that the son and nephew would have to split one-third of the estate. Use commas to indicate that a person is being addressed by name.
Surround their name in commas if they are being addressed. example 1
Fred, did you eat the pie?
Did you eat the pie, Fred? example 2
Will you, Emily, marry me?
Yes, Bill, I will. Use commas after phrases, clauses, or small words that introduce the main idea of your sentence.
Included in this group are transition words and phrases such as "however," "nevertheless," "on the other hand," etc. Use commas to set off words, phrases or clauses that comment on or give additional information about the main part of the sentence, or otherwise interrupt the natural flow of the sentence. Use commas before coordinating conjunctions such as "and," "or,", "but" that join two complete sentences, or when the comma is needed for clarity, emphasis, or contrast. Use a comma before non-essential, modifying elements that follow the words and main clause and provide information that supplements or comments clauses on the basic meaning of the main clause. Use a comma between coordinate adjectives not joined by "and." Use a comma when noting dates and addresses. Examples:
No, Fred did not take the pizza.
After the movie, we all went home.
Consequently, Kathy was glad that she went to the Writing Lab. Example
Joe, after visiting the Smiths, became a vegetarian.
Jessica, in the meantime, went skiing. Example
Utah may be windy, but it's home. Example
I live in New Mexico, the "land of enchantment."
Many college students struggle to pay tuition costs, which are steadily increasing. Example
The hiker traveled along the steep, narrow trail.
In the above sentence, both "steep" and "narrow" modify "trail." Thus they are coordinate adjectives. Do not use a comma between adjectives that are not coordinate -- that do not both modify the same noun.
The team members all wore lime green jackets.
In the above sentence, "lime" modifies "green," not "jackets." Coordinate adjectives each modify the noun independently. We stayed at an expensive summer resort.
You would not say expensive and summer resort, so no comma. side note
Use a comma when an -ly adjective is used with other adjectives.
NOTE:To test whether an -ly word is an adjective, see if it can be used alone with the noun. If it can, use the comma.
Examples:Felix was a lonely, young boy.
I get headaches in brightly lit rooms.
Brightly is not an adjective because it cannot be used alone with rooms; therefore, no comma is used between brightly and lit. Use a comma to separate the day of the month from the year and after the year. example
I was born on November 4, 1993, in West Valley, Utah. if any part of the date is missing leave out the comma example
They met in November 1993 in West Valley. Use a comma to separate the city from the state and after the state in a document. If you use the two-letter capitalized form of a state in a document, you do not need a comma after the state.
NOTE: With addresses on envelopes mailed via the post office, do not use any punctuation.
Example: I lived in San Francisco, California, for 20 years.
I lived in San Francisco, CA for 20 years. Use commas to introduce or interrupt direct quotations shorter than three lines.
Examples:He actually said, "I do not care."
"Why," I asked, "do you always forget to do it?"
A comma splice is an error caused by joining two strong clauses with only a comma instead of separating the clauses with a conjunction, a semicolon, or a period. A run-on sentence, which is incorrect, is created by joining two strong clauses without any punctuation.
Incorrect: Time flies when we are having fun, we are always having fun. (Comma splice)
Time flies when we are having fun we are always having fun.(Run-on sentence)
Correct: Time flies when we are having fun; we are always having fun.
Time flies when we are having fun, and we are always having fun. (Comma is optional because both strong clauses are short.)
Time flies when we are having fun. We are always having fun. comma splices END http://www.unm.edu/~caps/caps-handouts/writing-center/comma_rules.html http://www.grammarbook.com/punctuation/commas.asp citations Use commas to surround degrees or titles used with names. Commas are no longer required around Jr. and Sr. Commas never set off II, III, and so forth.
Example: Al Mooney, M.D., knew Sam Sunny Jr. and Charles Starr III. side note
Commas will always be in the quotations if it is setting off the item in the quotations.
example. " Yes," said the girl to her mother, " I am on my way home." the only exception is when that last little item enclosed in quotation marks is just a letter or a number, in which case the comma will go outside the closing quotation marks.
example: on this scale, the highest ranking is a "1", not a "10". http://grammartips.homestead.com/inside.html