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Transcript of Smallpox Summmary
The infected person is contagious as soon as symptoms appear
By: Henry Monohan, Benjamin Grissom, Andrew Higdon, Jack Fisher, Jacob Ranzau, Zachary Stamp
Believed to have appeared around 10,000 B.C, around the same time as the agricultural settlement in Africa
The first evidence of skin problems resembling smallpox is found on faces of mummies from the 18th and 20th Egyptian Dynasties (1570–1085 bc)
The Arab expansion, the Crusades, and the discovery of the West Indies all contributed to the spread of the disease
Small Pox was intrtoduced to the new world by Spanish and Portuguese conquistadors
Mechanisms of Transmission
Smallpox can be transmitted in a few different ways
Through contact with saliva- must be during face to face contact
Through the air - less common than contact with saliva but still entirely possible
Physical contact with scab or smallpox pustule- virus lives a long time in scabs but is not a real threat of infection
Smallpox takes around 12 days to incubate during which the person infected is not contagious but once the virus is done incubating, a rash will soon procede to appear, which will eventually become pustules
Spread on the eastern coast of the U.S by early settlers and that declined the Native population dramatically
The word variola was commonly used for smallpox and was introduced by Bishop Marius of Avenches
In late 1975, Rahima Banu, a three-year-old girl from Bangladesh, was the last person in the world to have naturally acquired variola major
Ali Maow Maalin was the last person to have naturally acquired smallpox caused by variola minor
Janet Parker was the last person to die of smallpox, it was September 11, 1978
Small Pox is caused by the variola virus, it has two types- Variola major and Variola minor
The virus attaches itself to the membrane receptors of the host cell on the outside
Once it is inside the cell, it loses both membranes and it releases it's proteins, enzymes, and DNA into the cytoplasm.
Viral replication and assembly starts after this
First step in replication is a set of enzymes called Type 1 topiosomerase that uncoil DNA strands and help with the early genes
Second step is the later genes
Once this happens, the viruses are formed into individual genomes
As the new viruses are released, the host cell's membrane is switched with the viruses' membrane
Smallpox requires medical diagnosis
There are no symptoms for 7 to 17 days
Early symptoms are similar to flu symptoms
They include: fever, chills, headache, back pain, abdominal pain, and vomiting
Patient is contagious as soon as symptoms begin
After these, the patient feels better for 2-3 days
Then a rash appears
This rash appears on the face, hands, and torso
Two days after the rash appears, It develops into pus-filled pockets
These abscesses eventually break open and form scabs
The scabs fall off and leave scars
The person is contagious until the last scab comes off
The mortality rate is 30%
There is no treatment once infected
Smallpox has been eradicated
Areas of the world affected
In 1975, a case of small pox occurred in Bangladesh. Small pox has been detected in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia, three countries which together are linked by Ogaden desert if you add Djibouti.
The last known case of small pox was on October 26 in Somalia in the Merca District. It was caused by an outbreak in the nearby district of Kurtuware. All 211 people from the outbreak were traced, revaccinated, and and kept under surveillance.
There is currently no treatment for small pox. There is a vaccination that is used to help prevent infection from developing if given up to four days after the person has been exposed to the virus. This vaccination was used to help remove the disease in the 1900's.
Important people associated with
Some famous survivors of smallpox are Mozart, Beethoven, George Washington, and Abraham Lincoln. George Washington was said to have signs of smallpox, but they were never shown in portraits. When Lincoln arrived to give his Gettysburg Address, he was weak, dizzy, and his face "had a ghastly color". He also developed back pains, exhaustion, and a rash that turned blister-like. One of his servants during illness later developed smallpox and died. It is still unclear to doctors as to how and where Lincoln developed the disease. Many famous people were killed such as Queen Mary II of England in 1694, Emperor Joseph I of Austria in 1711, Tsar Peter II of Russia in 1730, and King Louis XV of France in 1794. Some think smallpox is responsible for aiding the fall of the Aztec and Incan empires. In 1977, Ali Maow Maalin was the last person to get a natural case of smallpox. Janet Parker was diagnosed because the World Health Organization sent samples of the virus to the lab she worked above. The lab did not meet safety requirements, and the researchers kept up with their vaccinations, but Janet Parker hadn't had a vaccination in twelve years. Janet Parker is used as an example today of how a virus can escape a lab.
Smallpox is not transmitted by insects or by animals. Majority of smallpox patients recover. However, death can happen in up to 30% of cases. The vaccine has the vaccina pathogen, and exposure to this vaccina pathogen can put people with compromised immune systems at high risk. Certain skin conditions can help the virus bother the skin even more, possibly making symtoms worse. Most Americans under 40 years of age have not been vaccinated for smallpox. The form of smallpox that is most common as well as most severe is known as variola major. The types of variola smallpox are Ordinary, Modified, and Flat Hemorrhagic. There are several religions that have had gods/goddesses of smallpox. The smallpox vaccine delivered hope, as it was the first vaccine to ever be developed. Smallpox was also the the first disease to ever be completely eradicated from the whole world. It is very weak and hard to transmit when it is all by itself. Only certain military and medical personnel are still vaccinated against smallpox. All 50 states in the United States have instructions on how to vaccinate everyone in the American public within seven days of an outbreak.