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French Empire 1450-1750

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Haydee Diaz

on 16 January 2013

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Transcript of French Empire 1450-1750

The French Empire Geography of France - During 500-1000, The Franks were living in modern-day France
-The areas of modern-day France was also under the rule of the King of the Franks, Charlemange (reigned 768-814)
-On Christmas Day, 800, Charlemange was pronounced Holy Roman Emperor but died shortly and his kingdom was divided by his sons
-King Charles the Bald ruled the area of France after his father's death
-By 11th century C.E., the national monarchy of France aided and helped organize the political life of Europe that began to take shape ORIGINS of FRANCE Geography of France (continued) -France controlled also parts of North America and parts of the Caribbean
-The North American part was used mostly for The Fur Trade
-The Caribbean Islands were mainly used for the cultivation of sugar
-Many slaves were imported to Hispaniola because the natives there died, and they needed a work force to cultivate the sugar NEW FRANCE Geography of France - The disadvantage that France (and other European countries had) is that they didn't have access to major trading routes like the Silk Roads, Sea Roads, and Sand Roads
-They didn't trade globally until the Age of Exploration and Slave and Fur Trade into place DISADVANTAGES Economy of France GLOBAL TRADE -France was involved in two trading networks
*FUR TRADE
*SLAVE TRADE

-Fur Trade took place in North America between Indians and French explorers
-Slave Trade took place in the Caribbean islands (for France specifically Hispaniola and the Lesser Antilles Islands Many slaves came from this continent... and were transported across the Atlantic Ocean... to the island of Hispaniola Economy of France SLAVE TRADE - Many slaves ( from a few millions to 100,000,000 people) were taken out of Africa
-Between 9 and 11 million people actually made to the Americas alive
-Slaves in Hispaniola were used mainly to cultivate sugar cane
-The original natives of Hispaniola died out after Spaniards came in 1492, which led to importation of slaves into Hispaniola
-In 1697, Spain cedes Western Hispaniola to France Economy of France FUR TRADE -The Fur Trade was a new addition to the global trade
-Production had a massive impact on the environment and the societies that generated
-fur provided warmth and conveyed social status (in colder regions like Siberia)
-1500, the expansion of agriculture and population of Europe diminished the amount of fur-bearing animals available
-early modern era witnessed a period of cooling temperatures and harsh winters known as "Little Ice Age"
-The French were most prominent in the St. Lawrence
-Few Europeans actually did engage in trapping or hunting; usually they waited for Indians to bring it to their coastal settlements
-Enormous of quantities of furs and deerskins found its way to Europe, which helped the standard of living in cool climates
-Things traded for fur were copper pots , metal axes, knives, cloth, firearms, and alcohol Economy of France PROBLEMS OF THE FUR TRADE - The environment took a serious toll; the demand of beaver hats lead to the near extinction of the beaver by 19th century
-Although Native Americans got various benefits from the Fur Trade, they became too reliant on the Europeans and the tools that they were given by them
-Many Native Americans did die because of European diseases
-Alcohol affected natives horribly, with no prior experience to alcohol and easy availability led to binge drinking, violence among young men, promiscuity, and addiction Politics of France -France was an absolute monarchy
-France relied heavily on the Church
- France applied Mercantilism into its politics
-Mercantilism is to have political power while achieving economic unity
-Mercantilism supports goods being sent to other countries for some type of profit; however, it discourages the importing goods.
-Mercantilism was a way for places in Europe, mostly England and France, during the 16th and 17th centuries to keep control of government imports and exports and hopefully benefit from its results.
Positives
-Allowed the government to somewhat take control over their economy and financial issues
-Encouraged exploration
-Introduced new products and capital into society
-Competition would grow drastically among areas
Negatives
-Larger countries would begin to flex their muscles over smaller countries or some countries would become dependent on others for economic survival Social - In France, the social structure was
*Church(Pope)
*King (by hereditary)
*Noblemen
*knights
*peasants
-Education level could go far as doctors degree from a university
-Paris (college) specialized in theology France's Religions -France was mostly Catholic until the Protestant Reformation
-In 1562–1598, there was many conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics
-in August 24, 1572, Catholic mobs in Paris massacred about 3,000 Huguenots (the Protestant minority in France) and many thousands more were killed in other french towns in the weeks that followed
-Eventually Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes (1598) which granted a measure of religious tolerance toward Protestants (although with an intention that people would soon return to the Catholic Church) Intellectual -Absolutism
means, "absolute rule." This gives the king absolute rule and not even the nobility could obtain the powers
-Constitutionalism
The idea that the king has limited powers, and soon the Enlightenment will come along and bring knowledge to the people
-Scholasticism
The philosophical systems and speculative tendencies of various medieval Christian thinkers working against the background fixed religious dogma;they sought to solve general philosophical problems
-Scientific Revolution
Intellectual movement in Europe, initially started with planetary motion and physics; it laid the groundwork for modern science
-Enlightenment
philosophical movement in 18th century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior France's First Absolute Monarch -King Louis XIV (1661-1715) of France was the first absolute monarch in France, as well as all of Europe.
-Austria, Prussia, and Russia all modeled their type of ruling off of Louis' original absolute monarchy
-Louis created one of the most centralized bureaucracies of all time and also centralized the national economy in France
-He also built up the largest navy that Europe had seen in centuries
-Louis was a very power hungry absolutist
-He had France get involved in far too many wars (these wars damaged the French economy tremendously) Important Dates of France *1337-1453 Hundred Years War
*1300-1500 Rise of universities
*1519 Protestant Reformation Begins
*1540s Scientific Revolution Begins
*1562-1598 French Wars of Religion
*1607-1640 England and France found colonies
*1667-1697 Wars of Louis XIV
*1700s The Enlightenment Begins
*1718 French found New Orleans
*1740-1785 Seven Years War
*1756-1763 French and Indian War NEW PHILOSOPHIES Dynasties of France -VALOIS DYNASTY
*Francis I 1515-1547
*Henry II 1547-1559
*Francis II 1559-1560
*Charles IX 1560-1574
*Henry III 1574-1589

-BOURBON DYNASTY
*Henry IV 1589-1610
*Louis XIII 1610-1643
*Louis XIV 1643-1715
*Louis XV 1715-1774 Intellectual OLD PHILOSOPHIES - Many people in Europe believed that witches exist
-based on local folk culture and Pre-Christian religions
-Believed that natural events could supernatural causes
-when crops failed to grow,of animals died unexpectedly, they believed it was unseen spirits did it Intellectual Inventions used by empire:
-printing press
-watermills
-canals ART -Famous Painter: Antoine Caron
-Famous Writer and Poet :Pierre de Ronsard
*La Franciade (1572), an unfinished epic
*wrote (1562) two long patriotic poems deploring the Wars of Religion
-Famous composer: Josquin des Prez Merci!!! Thank You!!!!
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