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Effects of Design-Based Chemistry Instruction on the Science Problem-Solving Skills and Science Achievement among Different Groups of High-School Students

Dissertation Proposal Defense
by

Cobina Lartson

on 12 February 2014

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Transcript of Effects of Design-Based Chemistry Instruction on the Science Problem-Solving Skills and Science Achievement among Different Groups of High-School Students

Results
Research Question Two
Conclusions
Study Limitations
Research Question Three
Implications for Research & Practice
Research Question One
Does the effect of DBS on chemistry achievement depend on gender, race and SES?
Is Problem solving competency predictive of chemistry concepts score?
1. Limited generalizability of results

2. Cause-and-effect study relationships are not necessarily established due to other variables

3. Limitations on what instruments actually measure vs what they purport to measure

4. Biases of teacher as researcher

5. Non inclusion of other races
Research

The Problem & the so whats?

Literature Review

Research Questions

Research Methodology

Data Analysis

Results
Introduction
The Problem
Problem Solving Models
Literature Review
Research Methodology
Data Analysis
Dissertation Defense Timeline
Decline in number of STEM graduates since mid 1980s
Decline in K-12 interest in STEM careers
(Mooney & Laubach, 2002)
(van Langen and Dekkers, 2005)
particularly among
(African-Americans, Latina/os & Native Americans)
(The Center for Education and Work, 2008)
(Fadigan & Hammrich, 2004; Gilbert & Calvert, 2003; Scantlebury & Baker, 2007; NSF, 2008)
Girls
(OECD, 2004)
Strong correlation between problem solving competency and SES from PISA 2003
Looming Problem: Poor STEM performance and enrollment may get worse since by 2015 over 50% of U. S. public school students will comprise Blacks and Hispanics
Ornstein, 2010
Why closing Achievement Gaps matters
Decline in U.S. global competitive edge
Decline in jobs & productivity
Loss of GDP
1993 - 1998 GDP could have been $12mil higher
Closing racial achievement gap by 1998 would have led to a $400 - $500 billion higher GDP
African-Americans, Latina/os, South East Asians & Native Americans more likely to drop out of STEM programs than White counterparts
(The Center for Education and Work, 2008)
PISA 2003: U.S. students solved problems at the basic level:
Theories
Constructivism
Expert-Novice Theory
Behaviorist Theory
Cognitive Theory
DBS Framework
Conceptual Framework & Empirical studies
1. No empirical study on DBS on problem solving competency conducted.

2. Prior studies on DBS involve middle school students, however, since secondary science preparation is one of the best predictors of success in STEM courses, the current study investigates the effects of DBS (in this case design based Chemistry) on the problem solving competency of different groups of high school students.

3. None of the earlier studies investigated correlation between science achievement and problem solving competency.

4. The current study also investigates the effects of DBS depending on gender, race and SES.
Research Design
Procedure
Quasi-experimental
Control & treatment groups
pre/posttest
Sampling
non-probability means of purposive sampling
Treatment & Control groups randomly selected: 2 classes each of about 20 students
Instruments
BSMSS: four-factor index of social status with reliability of 0.85
PISA 2003 problem solving sample problems: reliability of 0.87
Chemical Concept Inventory (CCI): tests proficiency in science concepts & knowledge - reliability is 0.71
ANCOVA
Pretest scores adjusted or controlled for
Preferred since treatment & control groups were alike
Variance error reduced
Greater experimental control
Analysis done in SPSS
Current study could:

1. help determine the role of DBS in closing achievement and participation gaps in STEM subjects.

2. help clarify the relationship between problem solving competency and science achievement.

3. contribute to a better understanding of DBS and inform its use in high school classrooms, particularly in light of NGSS.
Effects of Design-Based Chemistry Instruction on the Science Problem-Solving
Competency and Science Achievement
among Different Groups of High-School Students
Importance of Current Study
1. Does DBS have any effect on problem solving competencies of students in a high school traditional chemistry class and if so does the effect vary depending on gender, race and/or SES?

2. Do the effects of DBS on Chemistry achievement of students in a high school traditional chemistry class vary depending on gender, race and/or SES?

3. Is the problem solving competency of students in a traditional chemistry class predictive of their chemistry achievement?
Research Questions
Variables
DV:
Problem solving competency, Chemistry concepts
Predictors:
DBS, Gender, Race, Socioeconomic status
Inter-rater Reliability: Sample of problem solving & CCI responses will be graded by another teacher
Mid Sept - mid Dec: Data collection
End of Jan: Draft of chapter 4
Mid Mar: Draft of Chapter 5
End of Mar: Feedback from committee
First week of April: Final draft
End of April - early May: Dissertation defense
Conclusions
Limitations
Implications for Research and Practice
Effect of DBS on Problem Solving
Competency: Treatment group vs Control group
F statistics: Treatment group compared with control group:
F (1, 71) = 32.90, p = .000, eta2 = .32
Effects seen across all three problem solving areas assessed
Decision Making F (1, 71) = 18.47, p .001, eta2 = .21
System Analysis and Design F (1, 71) = 11.52, p .05, eta2 = .14
Troubleshooting F (1, 71) = 15.74, p .001, eta2 = .18
Effect of DBS on Problem Solving Competency across Gender
Female and male students in the treatment and control groups were significantly different, F (1, 51) = 5.58, p = .05, eta2 = .099.
Problem solving competencies of Black and Hispanic students in the treatment and control groups were not significantly different, F (1, 51) = 1.07, p = .305, eta2 = .02.
The interaction of group, gender and race was however significant, F (1, 51) = 5.48, p = .05, eta2 = .097
Effects of DBS on Problem Solving Competency across Race
Effect of DBS on Problem Solving Competency across SES
Problem solving competencies of SES groups in treatment and control groups SES were not significantly different, F (2, 51) = .86, p = .428, eta2 = .03
Null hypothesis 1 rejected
Null hypothesis 2 rejected
Null Hypotheses
1. DBS has no effect on problem solving competency
2. Any effect of DBS on problem solving competency does not depend on gender, race and/or SES
3. Any effect of DBS no chemistry achievement does not depend on gender, race and/or SES
4. Problem solving competency does not predict chemistry achievement
Effect of DBS on Chemistry Achievement : Treatment vs Control Groups
No significant differences in chemistry knowledge gain for the treatment and control groups,
F (1, 51) = 0.45, p = .51, eta2 = .04
Effect of DBS on Chemistry Achievement depending on Gender
No significant differences in CCI scores when females and males from the treatment group were compared with those in the control group, F (1, 51) = 0.91, p = .35, eta2 = .02
Effect of DBS on Chemistry Achievement depending on Race
No significant differences in CCI scores when Black and Hispanic students from the treatment group were compared with those in the control group, F (1, 51) = 3.09, p = .085, eta2 = .06.
Effect of DBS on Chemistry Achievement depending on SES
No significant differences in CCI scores when students from the treatment group were compared with those in the control group, by their SES groups F (2, 51) = .67, p = .52, eta2 = .03
Null hypothesis three accepted
Problem solving competency significantly predicted the chemistry concepts score F (1, 80) = 31.03, p =˂ .000, adjusted R2 = .27
Null hypothesis four rejected

1. DBS significantly improved the problem solving competency of students in High school traditional Chemistry class.

2. DBS significantly improved the problem solving competency of both males and females, with a slight urge among females.

3. The differences in the effects of DBS in improving problem solving competency among Black and Hispanic students in this study was not statistically significant, however, Black students and Hispanic female students showed significant improvement in problem solving competency after the DBS instruction.

4. DBS did not significantly improve problem solving competency of students of particularly SES group(s), and

5. Problem solving competency is a strong predictor of chemistry concepts score
Results suggest that
Practice
1. Random sampling, more sites
2. Include other levels i.e. AP, IB, ...
3. Include other science subjects
4. Include other races
5. Extended period of study
6. Need for more comprehensive problem solving protocol to include cognitive, affective, and psychomotor behaviors
7. further studies need to establish correlation between problem solving skills and achievement
1. Results support the direction of NGSS
2. Emphasize problem solving for long-term improvement in science achievement
3. Closing science gaps in STEM: GDP & international competitive edge
4. non-negative affect of DBS on achievement reduces negative teacher reception
Q & A
Q & A
by Cobina Lartson
2013
Reasons
1. STEM uninteresting, difficult and closed off to females and minority students (PCAST, 2010)
2. Teacher quality (Hanushek & Rivkin
generally incapable of dealing with multi-faceted problems involving multiple data sources or requiring analytical reasoning with the information provided
(OECD, 2004)
(McKinsey Consulting Firm, 2009)
Does DBS affect problem solving competency and if so are there differences depending on gender, race and SES?
Justification for Study
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