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Causes of the Russian Revolution
Transcript of Causes of the Russian Revolution
By: Nathan Krause and Rachel Cupec
United States Involvement in the Revolution
Alexander I- The Russian Tsar who died in 1825, and caused the monarchy to show weakness
Alexander II- Tsar who abolished serfdom in 1861, which caused an economic crisis. His assassination in 1881 caused his son, to crack down on the law in Russia
Alexander IIII- cracked down on reform and revolutionary groups, which caused unrest in Russia
Vladimir Lenin- Founder of the Bolshevik Revolution, and organizer of the October Revolution. He was also the first leader of the Soviet Union. He was a devout leader of Marxism
Nicholas I- younger brother and successor to Tsar I. The weird succession caused a small public scandal in 1825 and allowed the Decembrist Revolt to take place
Nicholas II- The last Russian tsar who ruled from 1894 to 1917
Grigory Rasputin- Russian peasant who was a self-proclaimed mystic, and gained influence over Nicholas' wife Alexandra before the Revolution. Supporters of the tsar had Rasputin killed in late 1916 when they realized he was a bad influence
Joseph Stalin- Bolshevik leader who became popular after Lenin’s return to Petrograd in April 1917. After the revolution, Stalin became even more powerful and succeeded Lenin in 1924.
Leon Trotsky-A Bolshevik leader and one of the most prominent figures of the October Revolution. Trotsky, who was in exile during the February Revolution, came back in May 1917 and joined the Bolshevik Party. He then headed the Revolutionary Military Committee, which provided the military muscle for the October Revolution. After the revolution, he was appointed commissar of foreign affairs and led Russia’s negotiations with Germany and Austria for the armistice and they peace treaty that made allowed Russia to leave World War I.
Key People in the Revolution
Short term consequences:
Tsar Nicholas II was abdicated, and him and his entire family was executed
The Bolshevik Party took over Russia in October 1917
Russia transformed into a communist country with Lenin as leader
Russia backed out of World War I
They signed the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which gave land to Germany
Long term consequences:
The Russian Civil War between the Bolsheviks and the anti-Bolsheviks occurred between 1918 and 1920.
The Soviet Union that was run by Stalin
The Russian economy quicky dropped
The Cold War, which took place between 1947 and 1991 and was mainly between the Western World and all the Communist countries
Results of the Russian Revolution
Large numbers of Russian peasants were living in poverty
Because of the Industrial Revolution brought to Russia in the 1890s, the workforce became more politicized and began to revolt against the government
The Tsar ruled with an iron fist, without representation of the citizen and without representative bodies, like the Duma
In turn, the government was ineffective
The military was treated inhumanely and hated the Tsar
By the 1890s, a large part of Russian society was educated and had political values, which made it more difficult for the Tsar to rule over them
Causes of the Russian Revolution
Right after WWI, the United states fought another campaign with France, Britain and Japan during the Russian Revolution.
Troops were sent when the Kerensky government which was democratic administration was replaced with a communist regime.
Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin replaced the democratic government
13,000 American soldiers were sent to Russia to try and reestablish a democratic government and remove armaments that were previously given by Britain to Russia
The American involvement ended in the deaths of several hundred American troops and accomplished nothing significant for foreign relations or for military successes
Russia before the Revolution
Life was hard and extremely bitter for serfs before Alexander abolished serfdom in 1861
The Tsar and nobles still owned most of the land and wealth even after 1861
Russian revolutionaries would use assassinations to provoke change
They successfully killed Tsar Alexander II in 1881
Tensions grew as Alexander III tried to enforce order, and when Nicholas II became czar in 1894. The citizens of Russia had enough at that point
In 1905, Russia was suffering military defeats in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and as a response, protesters took to the streets. Specifically on January 22, 1905, approximately 200,000 workers and their families followed Russian Orthodox priest Georgy A. Gapon in a protest. They were marching to the Winter Palace, when palace guards opened fire on them and 300 people were killed and hundreds more were wounded.
After the "Bloody Sunday", people were horrified, and they began striking, mutinying, and fighting in peasant uprisings. With this, the Russian Revolution of 1905 had started
Tsar Nicholas II abdicates and includes his son. The following day, Nicholas' brother, refuses to accept the throne. A provisional government formed
Lenin returns from exile
The July Days begin in Petrograd with spontaneous protests against the Provisional Government; , Lenin is forced into hiding after the Bolsheviks unsuccessfully try to direct these protests into a coup
Alexander Kerensky becomes Prime Minister of the Provisional Government
The Kornilov Affair, a failed coup by General Lavr Kornilov, commander of the Russian Army
The Bolsheviks take over Petrograd
The Winter Palace, the last holdout of the Provisional Government, is taken by the Bolsheviks; the Council of People's Commissars led by Lenin, is now in control of Russia
The new Bolshevik government converts Russia from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar turning February 1 into February 14
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, between Germany and Russia, is signed and takes Russia out of World War I
The Bolshevik Party changes its name to the Communist Party
The capital of Russia is changed from St. Petersburg to Moscow
Comparing Russia before and after the Revolution
Before the revolution, much of the population were serfs to the nobles or to the Czar. After however, they were all free
Governmental systems changed due to the revolution from a monarchy to communism
The Revolution changed Russia's economic systems from Capitalism to Communism
Russia was a major world power before their revolution, and soon after the revolution they became isolationist until the Cold War
The government was only run by the Tsar before Russia turned communist, and after doing so it was run by two people; the Petrograd Soviet and the Provisional Government
Before the revolution, the Russians were very involved with WWI. Under Lenin after the revolution however, they exited out of the war
Also before the revolution they had more land than they did after due to a treaty with the Germans