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OCR A2 Attributions

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Geraint Davies

on 2 December 2015

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Transcript of OCR A2 Attributions

A Longitudinal Examination of African American Adolescents' Attributions About Achievement Outcomes
Researched Example
Study of 115 African American Adolescents
Reporting on Attributions for success and failures in Math, English & Writing, and Science.
Boys were more likely to succeed in Math and have a high ability in this content area, while girls were low in Math. Girls had a high ability in English & Writing whereas boys were low in this content area.
In comparison from Grade 8 to Grade 11 Math was negatively related in classroom engagement for both genders. Therefore, results generated a nature of motivational beliefs among the minority.
In General, 8th Grade students who had low abilities in math, still had low achievement in 11th Grade.
Math attributions strongly influence motivation.
This affects all learners regardless of achievement level.
As a result, failure was attributed to the lack of effort more strongly than to lack of ability by both genders.
Within an academic setting, a student who shows a great deal of effort may be perceived as a student who is less able to project the view of a successful student with little effort.
In Conclusion, failure in the past does not mean that you can not succeed in the future. However, our failure, as teachers, can often be to detect their disengagement due low test scores in students past, present, and future performances.
WJEC A2 Physical Education
ALL: Define an attribution; describe the loci of causality and stability
Example of Attribution Theory
High achievers
- attribute success to internal factors and failure to external factors
will attempt new challenges.
Low achievers
will shun new challenges based on prior results and give the opposite attributions
cognitive theory
that represents a persons view of the
causes of outcomes
an event
and how this view
his or her
future expectations
Weiner's Attribution Theory
TASK 2 & maybe 3!
Attribution Re-training
Attribution and Motivation
MOST: Explain the impact of using Weiner's model applying to sporting examples
SOME: Synthesise previous learning relating attributions to motivation and self efficacy
Group TASK
Group 1
= Self Serving Bias
Group 2
= Learned Helplessness
Self Serving Bias
Successful performers tend to take credit for success
Learned Helplessness
A belief acquired over time that one has no control over events
What have you learned?
Applied examples TASK 4
What impact do the attributions given have on performers?
is very much related to how experiences are attributed
A Case Study
What would you do?
Whats the question
They attribute success to
their own

outstanding qualities
(natural ability or their ability to react to competitive situations
This enhances feelings of
self worth
and most importantly
self esteem
is inevitable
Global = internal stable factors blamed for failure
e.g. I am useless at all sports
Specific = applied to one specific sport
e.g. I am good at rowing but awful at darts
Complete the section on reducing learned helplessness, past exam question and reflection of learning
Starter Task
Think of a recent sporting event in which you were successful. Give three reasons why you think you did well.

Think of a event in which you lost. Give three reasons why you lost.

What reasons did your coach give? Were they different? Why?
3 Now think of the reasons your coach gave for winning or losing the same game. Did he or she agree with you? Try to remember how you felt about the reasons the coach gave for winning or losing. If the coach was negative and blamed you or the team for losing, how did you feel? If the coach was positive, were you keen to attend the next training session?
Lazy days are a coming...
Now you are going to each plan a section of next lesson
Group 1 = dimensions of attribution
Group 2 = self serving bias
Group 3 = learned helplessness
Group 4 = Attribution retraining
(c) What do you understand by the term learned helplessness and what strategies may a coach use to prevent this from happening? (3 marks)
Performers may attribute their success and/or failure to various factors. What do you understand by the term attribution retraining, and when would it become necessary?
(3 marks)
Reducing Learned Helplessness
personal improvement
to improve
self esteem
What did you learn?
Get away from
internal reasons
such as ability and blame, the coach, your tactics, your equipment or other
external reasons
Set attainable goals
Allow success and explain failure
Use positive reinforcement
Use Attribution Re-training
The process of changing an individual’s perception of failure
Allows confidence to develop and performance to improve
1. On your white board, draw images to represent the 4 categories of attribution
2. a) Share your case study from last lesson
b) Identify the attributions included
c) Explain why such attributions have
been used and how this may impact
future performance
Welcome to A Level PE :-)
After a competitive match, players may explain their success or failure using a variety of factors called attributions. Weiner (1972) classified these attributions into four groups, and split the groups into two dimensions.
The intensity of the feelings of pride and satisfaction felt
Apply it
TASK 2 and 3
Create your own definition
Exam Question
1. Attribution training – changing the reasons given for failure;
2. Incorrect attributions affect performer’s persistence/performance/
expectations/satisfaction/cause learned helplessness;
3. Work with individual to change/improve techniques;
4. Encourage performer to attribute success to internal factors/ability/effort;
5. Help performer change attributions for failure as being due to external unstable factors/luck/task difficulty;
6. Attribute failure to controllable factors. 3 marks
(i) What are the two dimensions of attributions? (2)
1. Internal/external/causality;
2. Stable/unstable/stability.
(ii) What are the four groups of attributions? (2 marks)
1. Luck;
2. Effort;
3. Task difficulty;
4. Ability.
4 correct - 2 marks - 3 correct . 1 mark
Max 2 marks
Spot the difference
The reasons we give for winning and losing may not be correct!
The actor-observer effect suggests that if we are assessing our own performance - tend to go for external reasons
But if watching someone else tend to blame internal reasons for their failure - They did not concentrate!
Relationship to sports achievement
Link to achievement motivation
Goals adopted
Task choice
high motivation to achieve success
low motivation to avoid failure
focuses on the pride of success
ascribes success to stable factors and internal factors in one's control
ascribes failure to unstable factors and external factors out of one's control
usually adopts task goals
seeks out challenges and able competitors/tasks
performs well in evaluative conditions
High Achiever
Low Achiever
low motivation to achieve success
high motivation to avoid failure
focuses on shame and worry that may result from failure
ascribes success to unstable factors and external factors out of one's control
ascribes failure to stable factors and internal factors in one's control
usually adopts outcome goals
avoids challenges; seeks out very difficult or very easy tasks/competitors
performs poorly in evaluative conditions
Re- Starter
How do your own attributions differ from the attributions of others for the same event?
Have a look in the news, compare the ways that different people explain the same event
Actor Observer Effect
Girls tend to have attributions consistent with those of low achievers

Boys tend to have higher expectations of success
Gender Differences
Actor Observer
Attribution Bias
is the cause of the outcome of a performance

down to the performer or something else?
how likely is it that the reason given is going to change
Summarise your learning on page 7 or have a go at the tasks on Page 8
1. Learned helplessness. Idea that failure is inevitable/examples;
2. Possibly leading to idea of giving up even when success is possible/examples;
3. Coach to enable player to achieve success/play weaker opposition/examples;
4. Encourage view that success due to stable/internal factors . ability/examples;
5. That failure due to unstable/external factors . effort or luck/examples.
6. Learned helplessness can be global and/or specific.
(Do not credit just give up) Max 3 marks
is given to performers when everything
they could control
was done as well as possible – even if result is poor
For Example?

is levied when a performer
doesn’t do
a controllable factor well
For Example?
Coaches base judgements on controllable factors
What are the benefits if a performer can blame failure on a controllable factor?
Straight from the Horses Mouth!
Work together to read the 'relevant' parts of the research paper
What did the researchers find?
Why do their findings matter?
What others questions do you have?
Full transcript