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Meaghan Meehan

on 5 February 2013

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Transcript of AUTISM

AUTISM Autism is defined as “a developmental disability that significantly affects a student’s verbal and nonverbal communications, social interaction, and educational performance. It is generally evident before a child reaches age three and is manifest, when the child engages in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resists environmental change or changes in daily routines, and displays unusual responses to sensory experiences.” (Turnball & Turnball, 2007, pg. 260) Basics Developmental disability that affects communication, social, and academic skills
Often recognized before age 3
Pervasive Developmental Disorder or Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autistic disorder, Rett’s disorder, Childhood Disintegrative disorder, Asperger’s disorder, and Pervasive Developmental disorder
.073% of students 6-21 in Special Education are classified with autism (Turnbull)
Prevalence has increased over the past decade, but rates of incidence vary from study to study
Higher rates among students in elementary and secondary school
Males to females are about 4 to 1
No variations according to race or ethnicity Six Distinct Characteristics
◦ Atypical Language Development
◦ Atypical Social Development
◦ Repetitive Behavior
◦ Problem Behavior
◦ Sensory and Movement Disorders
◦ Differences in Intellectual Functioning
Range from no verbal communication to complexverbal communication
85-90% of children with autism can overcome their language deficiency
Disorders with sounds of speech and grammar or with communication and meaning aspects of language
Trouble focusing on only one topic
Limit conversations
Use gestures in place of words
Reverse pronouns
Trouble maintaining eye contact
Echolalia = repeating or echoing others
Difficulty with receptive and expressive language
Four Criteria:
Impaired use of nonverbal behavior
Lack of peer relationships
Difficulty to share enjoyment, interests, and achievements with others
Lack reciprocity
Theory of Mind: those with autism may not understand that their feelings and interests differ
from others
Difficulty empathizing with others, and comprehending others feelings and social cues
Trouble making friends Repeated movements and verbalizations
Motor movements (hand flapping)
◦Persistent attention to parts of objects
◦Strict routines
Need for sameness
◦Use to communicate discomfort or regulate awareness Repetitive Behavior Atypical Social Development Atypical Language Development Four Types
Self-injurious: head-banging, biting, scratching, etc.
Can sometimes be life threatening
Ex: Pica

Aggression: violence directed towards others
Property Destruction

Can be used to gain attention, escape something
unpleasant, and/or increase/decrease sensory
stimulation Problem Behavior Gifted students to students with intellectual disabilities
64-70% of students with autism have an intellectual disability
Savant Syndrome: extraordinary abilities
Ex: music, memorization, mathematics Differences in Intellectual Functioning Under/over responsive to sensory stimuli
◦ More often overly responsive
Abnormal posture, movements of face, head,body, limbs, eyes
Repeated gestures and mannerisms
Awkward walk Sensory and Movement Disorders Center for Disease and Control Prevention:
Not respond to their name by 12 months of age
Not point at objects to show interest (point at an airplane flying over) by 14 months
Not play "pretend" games (pretend to "feed" a doll) by 18 months
Avoid eye contact and want to be alone
Have trouble understanding other people's feelings or talking about their own feelings
Have delayed speech and language skills
Give unrelated answers to questions
Get upset by minor changes
Have obsessive interests
Flap their hands, rock their body, or spin in circles
Have unusual reactions to the way things sound, smell, taste, look, or feel Observation by Medical/Psychological
Professional or Parent
Developmental Screening/Physical Examination - Not developing social or communication skills correctly,usual physical healty
Psychological Evaluation
Diagnostic Standards Manual – IV criteria for autism: impairment in social interaction, impairment in communication, restricted, repeated, and stereotyped behavior. Evaulations Prereferral
◦ If child is diagnosed after child enters school they make skip this depending on the severity of the disability
◦ Referred by medical professional or parents for early intervention
◦ Referred to special education when in school
Nondiscriminatory Evaluation Procedures and Standards
Individualized Intelligence Test
70% = two standard deviations below mean
Difficult due to social and language behaviors
Individualized Achievement Tests
Sometimes have one or more areas of giftedness
Adaptive Behavior Scales
Low scores in communication, daily living, socialization, coordination, and socially appropriate behavior
Autism-specific scales
Direct Observation
Anecodotal Records
Behavior changes according to moods, energy levels etc. Evaluations Continued. . . Early Intervention
Help with Social Interactions and Skills
Social Stories
Positive Behavioral Support
Quiet, Non Distracting Environment
Calming Activities Potential Need Positive Behavior
Functional Behavioral Assessment: identifies correlations between behaviors and circumstances
Supplementary Aids and Services
Changing Settings
Altering Schedules
◦ Modifying Curriculum
◦ Reorganizing Social Groupings
◦ Extended Time
◦ Assistance of Para educators, Occupational Therapists,
etc. Addressing Needs Focus on Cognitive Learning and Social Decision-making Strategies
Mnemonic (memory) Strategies
◦ Keyword: Link a word to a new concept
◦ Pegword: Rhymes with numbers
Letter: Acronyms Universal Design for Learning Involve autistic students in classes and activities with other students
Make the other students aware
Teach autistic students social skills
Trustworthiness and Loyalty
Conflict Resolution
Friendship Skills
Positive Interaction
Viewing Different Perspective Addressing Social Skills Written by parents or teachers
Describe social settings, cues, and interactions
Used in Early Childhood Social Stories Used in elementary and middle school
Used for all students
Modify environments to play to student’s strength Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Used in secondary education
Discriminative Stimulus – tell the student what to do
Response – student’s reaction
Reinforcing Stimulus - reward Discrete Trial Teaching

One of the lowest rates of inclusion

Less than 1/3 spend a majority of their time in
general education classes Inclusion Community Resources

Autism Speaks

Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Autism Society

National Autism Resources
http://www.nationalautismresources.com/ Resources

Autism Causes . (2008, September 5). MED TV.com. Retrieved March 19, 2012, from http://autism.emedtv.com/autism/autism-causes.html

Diagnosis and Screening . (2010, May 13). Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 21, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/screening.html

Signs and Symptoms. (2010, May 13). Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 20, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html

Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., & Wehmeyer, M. L.
(2010). Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today’s Schools (6th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
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