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Electron Transport Chain

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by

Andrea Capriles

on 13 January 2013

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Transcript of Electron Transport Chain

By: Hans Dekker, Lotje Zegwaart, Andrea Capriles,
and Sidjon Sasso Electron Transport Chain What is the Electron Transport Chain? Electron Transport Chain Process Part 2 The electron transport chain is an event that occurs after the Glycolysis and Krebs Cycle. It plays a significant role within the cellular respiration process. The overall purpose for cellular respiration is to produce energy that cells can use to do work. The electron transport chain occurs in the cristae of the mitochondria. This is where protein complexes are embedded. A complex is a compound where independent molecules or ions form together with other molecules or ions to make a bond. The complexes found in the electron transport chain are; NADH Dehydrogenase, Cytochrome B-C1, Cytochrome Oxidase and, ATP synthase, the complex that makes ATP. In addition to these complexes there are two mobile complexes involved; Ubiquinone and Cytochrome C. This means that the Ubiquinone and Cytochrome C are the only ones that move. Other key components are NADH and the electrons from it, Hydrogen ions, Molecular Oxygen (O2), Water (H2O), ADP and PI (Inorganic Phosphate) which combine to form ATP. The body's metabolism process occurs in multiple stages in which food and digestion represent the initial parts of the process. Once food has been broken down into fats, proteins and carbohydrates, the bloodstream carries these nutrients to the cells. The body's respiratory system also plays a part in this because, oxygen is delivered to the cells through the bloodstream. In order to convert food materials into usable energy, the cellular respiration process goes through three stages. These stages are known as like we mentioned before: glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle and the electron transport chain. Understanding energy conversion process Within the electron transport chain, energy is converted by moving electrons along a chain of chemical reactions. The energy contained inside these electrons is used to convert oxygen atoms into hydrogen atoms, which are the essential materials needed to make the energy molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate).ATP is a chemical compound that cells use to store energy or to release energy. Part 2 of Energy Conversion Each electron is then passed to the cytochrome C. The cytochrome C can only carry one electron at a time so it needs to take more than one trip. The next step of the electron chain occurs in the Cytochrome Oxidase complex. This requires 4 electrons. These 4 electrons need to interact with 2 oxygen molecules and 8 hydrogen ions. The 4 electrons, the 2 oxygen molecules, and 4 of the 8 hydrogen ions form water molecules. The 4 hydrogen ions that are not used are then pumped across the Cytochrome Oxidase. This pumping out process creates a hydrogen ion gradient. The energy in this gradient is then used by the ATP synthase to finally produce about 34 molecules of ATP. Electron Transport Chain Process Part 1 The electrons from the earlier stages of cell respiration pass along this chain. At the beginning, the electrons from NADH are passed on to the NADH Deyhydrogenase. This means that the amount of hydrogen ions is equal to the amount of electrons that is being passed to another molecule called the ubiquinone. Ubiquinone is called a mobile complex because it transfers the electrons from the Dehydrogenase to the Cytochrome B-C1. Complexes in the Electron Transport Chain Conclusion ATP molecules--the end product of cellular respiration--harness the energy contained i and make it available in a form that cells can use. Cells are designed to manufacture energy when needed it is needed, so storing energy is not an option. This means cells must initiate the respiration processes when they truly need it. While the glycolysis and Krebs cycle stages manufacture minimal amounts of energy, did you know that the electron transport chain produces 10 times more energy in the form of ATP molecules? This is because they use oxygen as a power source. This then enables cells to meet the body's changing energy needs, and also helps eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells keep healthy.
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