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The sister wives explorers
Transcript of The sister wives explorers
Jefferson: It first came to me in 1801, the very first day I was elected president. It took me four tries to actually get a successful expedition.
Interviewer: Interesting...Why did you pick Lewis and Clark to lead the Journey?
Jefferson: Meriwether Lewis was a brilliant man, and he was my personal secretary and helped me do presidential duties, as well as help me prepare for the exploration of the western part of the United States. On January 18, 1803, I seeked authorization for the expedition. It was the first official exploration of unknown spaces undertaken by the United States. On February 28, I got the approval from congress. I selected Meriwether Lewis to be the commander of the expedition. Later I learned that Lewis wrote to the former army comrade, William Clark, inviting him to share the command of the expedition. I thought it was a good idea to have the brains of Mr. Lewis, and the Brawn of Mr. Clark.
Interviewer: When did they leave for the expedition?
Jefferson: They left July 5, 1803. Along with them were 31 other men called the Corps of Discovery, and a Newfoundland dog by the name of Seaman. It was the beginning of something big, something incredible. The Corps of Discovery would travel thousands of miles, experiencing new lands, rivers, and peoples that no American’s had ever seen before. It was a new beginning for the United States of America, and it was something that left a huge mark on the development of our beautiful country. Bismark Writer In the Beginning Scientist August 23, 1804
Today we saw an animal the indians call a buffalo. The indians informed us that a large drove of buffalo was near. The chief wanted us to participate in the chase, for he wanted us to learn about the large, very useful animal. The animal had fluffy hair, and was extremely large. The indians killed the buffalo on horseback, which was very fascinating to watch. They killed 10 buffaloes, but one was killed on the ice. We butchered the buffalo, and its meat was very rich and useful. The skin was thick, and could be used for many things. It was a very exciting journey, and I am overjoyed to learn about the large, majestic animal that could possibly provide life for us here. Clark. St. Louis 38.6300° N, 90.2000° W Days in hotel $38 Breakfast: $0 Lunch $11 The water rushes
It gushes and flushes
Over the heavy rocks
Flowing over stones
It is always on the go
The water never slows
The vast falls glisten
And the animals listen
As the water flows on and on
Around the bend
The river slows to an end
Into the great beyond Gateway Arch Standing at 630ft, The gateway arch is the nation's tallest monument.
The construction began February 12, 1936. The Arch's last piece was added on October 8, 1965.
It cost approximately 13 million dollars and weighs 17,246 Total Cost: $85 Bismark 46.8083° N, 100.7833° W Lunch $12.90 Expressway Inn: $82 I awoke quickly as the snap of a breaking stick rang throughout the forest. The National Forest here in Missoula, Montana isn’t frequently visited by humans, And this sound, was definitely not caused by an animal. I rose to my feet and smelled the air. The rest of my friends had awoken, too. As we tried to find scents of a possible human, we heard more snaps and cracks as if there were multiple humans traveling through the forest. Lolo National Forest is a very thick forest, and it’s very hard to find your way through here. It is also surrounded by large mountains and lakes that block you in many directions. Why any human would travel through here, is a question to me. I started walking towards the direction that the loud noises were coming from. Along the way I managed to grab a view huckleberries from the great bush that rested along the trail. I walked up the great hill to the top of the cliff that had an incredible view of what Lolo Forest had to offer. I can see for miles from here. The lakes, all mountains, and cliffs, all visible from this one spot, known as Lolo Peak. For a second I was distracted by the marvelous view, but then I saw it. A group of people, and what appeared to be a small bear, were traveling through the forest, as if they were looking for something. I observed them closely, and watched their every move. When they finally reached a point where they could possibly see me, i ran back to my friends to tell them the news. My friends, being rather shy and fearful, looked as though they were about to pee. They were afraid for their lives. They believe humans are harmful and want to kill us for our skin and meat. I on the other hand said it was worth the shot.
I walked towards the people, waiting to see if they saw me. There was a woman with an extremely large stomach. She looked as though she had a giant tumor in her stomach, but it was probably just a baby. I made my way towards them, and stepped right in front of them on the trail. They looked at me oddly, and then a man with a book came forward and started observing me. I just stood there letting them look at me so they could soak up all of what was me. Then, one of the larger men who the people called Clark, tried touching me. I saw his nasty hands try to touch my newly cleaned coat, and ran. I don’t know what they were doing, or what they were looking for. But those were probably the nicest humans I have ever met. They respected me as an animal, and instead of using me, they studied me. They were interested in me. Most humans just saw me as meat, but those humans thought i was more. Complementary Breakfast May 14th, 1804,
I have discovered a new species of deer at St. Charles, Missouri. This species has a white tail, so I have appropriately named it the White-Tailed Deer. The sizes of these deer vary greatly, they can be a very small deer or they can be a medium sized deer. In the summer season, they have a tan or reddish-brown coat, but in the winter season, they get a grayish-brown coat. However they are not just this one color, their belly, throat, nose band, eye ring, and the insides of their ears are all white. And lastly, they all live in brushy and wooded areas. Total Cost: $139.65 Dakota Zoo The Dakota Zoo has 90 Acres of land.
Housing 60 animals, birds, reptiles and fish representing 125 species
More than 130,000 people visit each year. Writer Mike Shannon's Steaks and Sea food $36 Writer May 14th, 1804,
I have found a new tree species that I will call the Easter White Pine. It is a needled evergreen tree and it usually grows to be about fifty to eighty feet tall but some look like they are more than one hundred feet tall, and this tree has a spread of about twenty to forty feet. The needles are a bluish-green color, are about five inches long, are soft when touched, and are all in bundles of five. The tree’s cones are cylindrical in shape, brown in color, and between four to six inches long. And the last interesting quality of these trees is that they seem to be a favorite spot for the birds to take a rest. May 15th, 1804,
I have discovered a new animal while we were crossing the prairie. I decided to call it the buffalo; it is pretty large and has four legs. During the winter its coat is dark brown with long, shaggy hair, and during the summer its coat is a lighter shade of brown and lighter weighing. The male buffalo are usually slightly bigger than the females but can be very heavier. Both the heads and the rear ends of the buffalo are very huge. Both sexes of buffalo have curved, short horns that they seem to use for fighting each other in the heard, and to protect themselves from attackers. The buffalo are herbivores; they eat the grasses in the prairies. They don’t do much, they graze for about two hours, then they rest and when they wake up again, they move to a new location to graze again. Female buffalo have one calf at a time and it is a reddish-brown color. May 14th, 1804,
I have discovered a new little critter at Bismarck, North Dakota.
It shall from now on be known as the Northern Raccoon. It almost
always has gray-brown or orange-brown fur on top of its body and
a lot of gray or black fur on its underside. On its face, it has black
fur that looks like a mask with white fur outlining the black patch.
It has a bushy tail that usually has anywhere between four and six
alternating black and brown rings. These animals can be found almost
anywhere; they live in trees inside the native’s settlements as well
as in the wooded areas and the wetland areas. May 15th, 1804,
We have encountered a new plant that I named the Indian
Breadroot. Its leaves are palm shaped, and the flowers are a
purplish-blue color. Dense, light-colored hairs cover the entire
plant. These plants all live on the prairie. The root, which is one
and a half to two inches in length, has a high starch and sugar
content and is edible. The Indians harvest it in late summer, and
they eat it raw, roasted, boiled, or dried in the sun. If they dry
the roots in the sun, it is usually ground between two rocks
to make flour to mix with soups and stews. May 16th, 1804,
We have killed our first of a new species of bear; we will call this a grizzly bear. Their fur is various shades of brown from a tan shade to a very dark shade of brown. The hairs also have white tips on their hairs that give them a grizzled appearance. The claws on their front feet can get to be as long as four inches in length. When they are standing on all four legs, they are about three to four feet tall, and the length is usually about seven and nine feet long. The bear also has a short, stubby tail that is usually about three inches long. They spend most of their time around rivers and streams, probably because they find the fish they eat there. We saw one outside of our camp recently and we tried to kill it. We found that they are very hard to kill as we shot ten balls into it before it died. My best estimate would be that this particular bear weighs about five hundred pounds. Marlin's Family Restaurant: 34.75 May 14th, 1804,
I have discovered a new tree species that I will name the Osage
Orange Tree. This tree is a medium sized tree that has spines on it.
It has a very short trunk that is usually crooked. The branches of this
tree are spread out and usually broad or rounded with a milky sap.
It has flowers that are tiny and greenish in color and crowded in a
cluster less than one inch in diameter. They are all about fifty feet
tall and have a diameter of about two feet. They grow in river
valleys with moist soil. You can extract a dye from the root bark
that turns cloth yellow. And lastly the native people love it
because they commonly use it to make their archery bows. Days in Great Falls $73.88 Lunch: $11 May 15th, 1804,
A new plant was discovered that we have named the Gray
Rabbitbrush. It is a shrub with slender, erect, flexible branches that
are covered with felt-like, dense, matted hairs that can easily be
overlooked unless you scrape the surface of the branches lightly. It
has narrow leaves and tiny yellow heads in clusters at the ends of the
stems. The flower heads are about a half inch tall, the slender leaves
are between one and three inches long, and the height of the whole
plant is about seven feet. It grows in open, dry places or in grasslands
or open woodlands. Some of these plants are light green, and the
others have silvery hairs. The native people know a way to make
yellow dye out of the flowers on the plant. Howard's Pizza Place: $41.56 Total: $126.44 August 15, 1805
Dear Mr. Jefferson,
Today was a wonderful day. As we approached the Columbia River Territory, we realized we needed horses to travel along this part of the valley. The indian tribe that had many horses was the Shoshone. We rode up the river until we came across an indian of the Shoshone. He led us to the chief. Sacagawea seemed oddly familiar with the land here, for after all, she was a Shoshone and did speak their language. We entered the chiefs land and in an instant Sacagawea was running to the chief, her face filled with joy as she embraced him. For the chief, Cameahwait, was Sacagawea’s long lost brother. Her eyes filled with tears, and she had the brightest smile on her face. It was an incredible moment that got us great results. Her brother gave us the horses we needed, for a reasonable trade. Now we are traveling along the river with great horses.
Meriwether Lewis May 17th, 1804,
A new flower has been discovered that we named the Fragile Prickly-Pear.
The whole plant makes a low, matted, clump of spiny pointed stems. The
flowers are a yellow or greenish color; it blooms near the upper end of the
joints and is usually between one and a half to two inches wide. The entire
flower is eight to ten inches tall, and the stem clump is one to three feet
wide. It grows in open, dry areas. Writer May 16th, 1804,
Another new flower has been discovered, it will be
named the Purple Coneflower. The leaves are covered
in stiff hairs and have oblong shaped leaves. The head
of the flower has pinkish-purple colored petals, and the center of the flower is spiny, dark, and cone shaped.
The height of the whole plant is usually between
fifteen and twenty five inches tall. This plant grows
in fields and dry prairies. And if you ask me, it is
the prettiest flower that I have seen this whole expedition. Great Springs Heritage State Park and Fish Hatchery Great Springs Heritage State Park and Fish Hatchery is one of the largest fresh water springs that produces 338 million gallons of water a day.
The fish hatchery raises about 1.3 million fish annually.
Not to mention the beautiful waterfalls and streams! Missoula Washington News May 16th, 1804,
An interesting new plant was found today that is now named Philadelphus
Lewisii. It is a shrub that we have discovered in Montana. They do not seem
to be very common, as we usually find them as a single plant living among
another species of plant. The shrub is usually between one and a half to three
meters in height. It has long stems that are red when they’re new but turn
gray with age. The leaves are light green in color with a rough texture, oval
shaped, smooth or serrated along the edges, and usually between three and
five centimeters long. The flowers are in clusters at the end of the long
stems, the flowers have four white petals that are between five and forty
millimeters long, and it has many yellow stamen. At the height of flowering,
this entire plant is covered in blossoms. These flowers have a sweet scent
similar to orange blossoms mixed with pineapple. The fruit is a small,
hard capsule about one centimeter long containing many long, brown seeds.
The natives use the leaves and bark to mix with water to make a kind of
soap, and they use the hard wood for fishing and hunting tools. Lewis and Clark have reached Astoria!
November 23, 1805
As Meriwether Lewis and William Clark’s great expedition come to an end, we hear about it now, a few years after the expedition began. The expedition came to a remarkable end at the mouth of the Columbia River in Astoria, Oregon. "Great joy in camp, we are in view of the ocean, this great Pacific Ocean which we have been so long anxious to see. The roaring or noise made by the waves breaking on the rocky shores (as I suppose) may be heard distinctly." Clark noted on November 7th, 1805 when they first thought they saw sights of the Pacific Ocean. The explorers made a fort for the winter, and will return home in late march. Overall here back in the colonies are very excited to hear what they have discovered, and may we all wish a safe trip back to our brave Corps of Discovery. Thomas Jefferson, the leader of this entire expedition, is very pleased with what he has been receiving from his people on this entire journey. We know more about the world than we ever did before, and the world has changed forever. May 17th, 1804,
A new species of fish was captured at the mouth of the Marias River
that will be named the Sauger. Its body has a cylindrical shape and is
gray to dull brown in color; however the sides are brassy to orange in
color with dark markings and the belly is white. The dark marks are
stripes that extend from the spine to the middle of the sides. The fish
are about twenty five inches long and weigh about nine pounds. It
lives in large creeks and rivers with moderate to swift currents; it
also lives in some lakes and reservoirs. May 17th, 1804,
The men found a new bird species today and decided to name it the Sage Grouse. Both sexes of the Sage Grouse are a gray-brown color above with a black belly. The males have a black throat; white breast, long pointed tail, and elongated neck plumes. The females head, back, and breast are the same as the males coloring. The males are between twenty five and thirty inches tall, and the females are between twenty two and twenty three inches long. The birds make a chicken-like cackling call, and the males make a bubbling sound when they’re trying to attract a mate. These birds live in open country and sagebrush plains. When a male is trying to attract a mate, it fans its tail then tilts it forward, then it inflates a pair of naked, yellowish-green air sacs in its neck and breast. May 17th, 1804,
I’ve found a new plant that I named the Tansy. It is a perennial plant, so it comes back year after year. It is an erect flower with flat-topped clusters of bright orange-yellow, button-like flower heads. The leaves are four to eight inches long, the flower heads are about one half inch wide, and the whole flower is about two to three feet tall. It lives on and around fields. The natives have warned us that this plant is toxic and ingesting it is not recommended. $55 The Days Inn University Mackenzie River Pizza Co. $42 Taco Bell $12.90 Total: $119.00 5-14-04 1. Arrowhead: An arrowhead is a tip, usually sharpened, added to an arrow to make it more deadly or to fulfill some special purpose. The earliest arrowheads were made of stone and of organic materials; as human civilization progressed other materials were used. The arrowhead or projectile point is the primary functional part of the arrow, and plays the largest role in determining its purpose. Some arrows may simply use a sharpened tip of the solid shaft, but it is far more common for separate arrowheads to be made, usually from metal, horn, or some other hard material. 5-14-04 2. Prairie Dog: Prairie dogs (genus Cynomys) are burrowing rodents native to the grasslands of North America. The five different species of prairie dogs are: black-tailed, white-tailed, Gunnison's,Utah, and Mexican prairie dogs. They are a type of ground squirrel, found in the United States, Canada and Mexico. Prairie dogs are named for their habitat and warning call, which sounds similar to a dog's bark. In the US, they range primarily to the west of the Mississippi River, though they have also been introduced in a few eastern locales. They are herbivorous. This beautiful carousel was completed in 1995 With beautiful carved horses this carousel is an amazing attraction for kids and adults Columbia River May 16th, 1804,
We met a very ferocious animal today; it is so dangerous it could
easily kill a man, so it has appropriately been named the Mountain
Lion. It is a large, unspotted cat with a small head and a dark tipped
tail. Their top fur is a pale brown to tawny color, and their underside
is white. It has dark spots at the base of its whiskers. It has short,
rounded ears that are dark in the back. It has heavy, long legs with
very large feet. Its habitat is somewhat varied, it lives in mountains,
semi-arid areas, and swamps. May 18th, 1804,
A big new discovery was made today, a bird that we named the
Great Blue Heron. These birds have round, long wings, long and
tapered yellow bills, and a short tail. The upper parts of the bird
are gray, and the fore-neck has streaks of white, black, and
rust-brown. The legs are a brownish or greenish color. When
they fly, their neck fold into an “S” shape and extends the legs
along the body axis. The wing beats when it is flying is deep
and slow. They usually live near some sort of water source like
a river, lake, or a wetland. The Great Blue Heron eats mostly
fish, but will also eat amphibians, reptiles, invertebrates,
insects, mammals, and other birds. These herons lay two to
six eggs at a time. May 18th, 1804,
A new animal was caught today that we named the Yellow-Bellied
Marmot. Its top fur is a yellowish-brown, and its belly is yellow. The feet
are a buff to light brown color and it has a white spot between the eyes
and another yellow patch below the ear to the shoulder, and it has a
bushy tail. The entire length ranges from about fifteen to thirty inches,
the tail is about five to nine inches, and it weights between five and nine
pounds. It lives in rocky areas, valleys, and foothills. May 18th, 1804,
A new tree was seen that I named the Rocky Mountain Maple.
It is a shrub or small tree with a short trunk and slender, upright
branches. They can reach a height of about thirty feet, the trunk
has a diameter of about one foot, and the flowers are about one
half inch wide and greenish-yellow in color. It seems to grow
in most soil types, but it is most common near canyons and
mountain slopes in coniferous forests. And the foliage seems
to attract deer, elk, cattle, and sheep. May 18th, 1804,
We saw a new plant that was named the Western Red
Baneberry. It is a bushy plant, with large, highly divided
leaves and a short, thick, rounded cluster of small white
flowers in leaf axils or at the ends of the stems, and the
petals fall off when the flower starts to open, this leave a
number of stamens. The flowers are about one half inch
wide and the whole plant is one to three feet tall. These
plants live in streambanks, moist woods, and thickets.
And we are very lucky to have the native people with
us; they warned us that the berries of this plant are
very poisonous if ingested. May 19th, 1804,
We saw an animal today that is highly sought after in the
fur trade, a sea otter. It has a dark brown body with a
yellowish or grayish head and back of the neck. It has a
short tail that is thick at the base but thins out at the tip. It
has webbed feet, and the back feet are like flippers. The
entire otter is about four feet long, its tail is about one foot
long, and they usually weigh somewhere between forty five
and sixty five pounds. They like to live in kelp beds and
rocky, shallow water. They also like to stay close to shore,
especially places that have an abundance of shellfish. And
the fur of the sea otter is traded a lot between the local
people. May 19th, 1804,
A new cormorant species was seen today and I decided
to name it the Double-Creased Cormorant. It is a black
cormorant with an orange throat pouch and a long neck.
It has a long, hooked bill that is tilted upward when the
bird swims. When it flies, the neck shows a sight crook
that is not seen in other species of cormorant. The
length of the whole bird is usually between thirty and
thirty five inches long. It likes to live by water because
it is usually found in lakes, river, swamps, and by the
coast. May 19th, 1804,
A new species of flower was brought back to the ship today, and
the name was decided to be the California Rhododendron. It is an
evergreen shrub with large leaves that are deep green and have a
leathery texture. The whole plant has round clusters of large, pink,
tubular flowers one and a half inches long. The whole plant can
grow to be anywhere between four and ten feet tall, and it is not
very common but some of them grow about twenty feet tall and
turn almost tree-like. It grows in both open and shady forests. If
you ask me, this is the showiest of all the flowering shrubs I’ve
seen in western North America so far. May 19th, 1804,
I saw a new plant today while out on a walk and it
intrigued me enough to write about it. I decided to
name it the Netleaf Hackberry. It is a shrub or a small
tree with a short trunk and open, spread out branches.
It grows a sweet, orange-red berry that contains one
seed, and the berries are usually about one half
inch in diameter. The total height is usually
between twenty and thirty feet, and the
diameter of the trunk is about one foot. It
grows in woodland areas, grasslands,
deserts, hillsides, canyons, and in moist soil along
streams. The sweetish tasting berry is eaten by both
wildlife and the native people. $59 Super 8 $11 The view point inn $49 Total: $119.00 The Columbia River Gorge runs almost from border to border and encompasses a large area of the only sea level river running through stunning cliffs made during the Ice Age. Missoula Lake (Montana) had a huge ice dam that formed at that time. When it broke through, the flood waters carved out the Columbia Basin and Gorge.
There are many things to do at this beautiful Gorge. Astoria Gino's Pizza and Burgers $41.23 Lamplighter Hotel $44 $12.90 Total: $98.13 Walk across the Beautiful Astoria-Megler Bridge.
It is the longest continuous truss bridge in North America.
The Astoria–Megler Bridge spans the Columbia River between Astoria, Oregon and Point Ellice near Megler, Washington, in the United States.
The bridge is 4.1 miles long Total food: $316.24 Mileage Total cost of gas: $207.70 2,131 miles Prius 40mpg Gas: $3.88 100 a day car rental $600 Total Lodging: $351.88 Final Total: $1475.82 5-15-04 3. Peace Medal: The term Indian Peace Medals is most commonly associated with circular silver medallions distributed to Native American tribal representatives by representatives of the United States government. They were designed and created by a man named John Reich. They were made in three sizes: small, medium and large. The largest could have a diameter of inches. The most common feature of Indian Peace Medals was the portrait of the current U.S. president. They are often cited as a symbol of the relationships between the United States federal government and Native Americans in the late-18th and 19th centuries. The relationships, governed by treaty and ostensible good faith, were in most cases ultimately determined by force. For many years, the reverse of an Indian Peace Medal depicted clasped hands and a crossed tomahawk and peace pipe. It also included the phrase Peace and Friendship. The left wrist was covered with the ornamented cuff of a military uniform; the right wrist was bare, except in the case of Jefferson's medal, which covered the wrist with a broad metallic bracelet with the image of an eagle on it. 5-15-04 4. Buffalo Bone Tools: The Buffalo or Bison. - Plains Indians became totally dependent on the Buffalo for their existence and it provided them with food, shelter, tools, entertainment and clothing. The Plains Indians became nomadic hunters because the Buffalo moved to different places and the Indians followed the vast herds that covered the Plains by the hundreds of thousands. Until the arrival of the horse, the Native Americans hunted on foot. As they followed the Buffalo they utilized natural topography to help them kill as many animals as possible for present use as well as preserving as much as they could for the leaner times and during winter when game was not as plentiful. 5-16-04 6. Whetstone: Sharpening stones, water stones or whetstones are used to grind and hone the edges of steel tools and implements.
Examples of items that may be sharpened with a sharpening stone include scissors, scythes, knives, razors and tools such as chisels, hand scrapers and plane blades. Though it is sometimes mistaken as a reference to the water often used to lubricate such stones, the word "whetstone" is a compound word formed with the word "whet", which means to sharpen a blade, not the word "wet". The process of using a sharpening stone is called stoning. Sharpening stones come in a wide range of shapes, sizes and material compositions. Stones may be flat, for working flat edges, or shaped for more complex edges, such as those associated with some wood carving or woodturning tools. They may be composed of natural quarried material, or from man-made material. Stones are usually available in various grades, which refers to the grit size of the particles in the stone. Generally, the finer the grit, the denser the material, which leads to a finer finish of the surface of the tool. Finer grits cut more slowly because they remove less material. Grits are often given as a number, which indicates the density of the particles with a higher number denoting higher density and therefore smaller particles. 5-17-04 7. Emetics: An emetic, such as syrup of ipecac, is a substance that induces vomiting when administered orally or by injection. An emetic is used medically where a substance has been ingested and must be expelled from the body immediately (for this reason, many toxic and easily digestible products such as rat poison contain an emetic). Inducing vomiting can remove the substance before it is absorbed into the body. Ipecac abuse can cause detrimental health effects. Salt water and mustard water have been used since ancient times as emetics. Care must be taken with salt, as excessive intake can potentially be harmful. Copper sulfate was also used in the past as an emetic. It is now considered too toxic for this use.
Hydrogen peroxide is used as an emetic in veterinary practice. May, 14th, 1804,
A new reptile was discovered by us today, and I have named it the
Planes Horned Toad. I am sending a specimen about the Planes Horned
Toad back to president Jefferson from St. Louis. The lizard is flat-bodied
and has a big crown of spines on its head, with the center two being the
longest. It has two rows of pointed scales on each side. The color ranges
from red to yellow to gray with dark lines radiating out from the eye.
Their length ranges from about two inches to about seven inches. It
lives in dry areas that are mostly open country with loose soil. Red Tailed Fox Antelope and Elk Condor Sunflower Glacier Lily Western Gull Missouri River 5-16-04 5. Sextant: A sextant is an instrument used to measure the angle between any two visible objects. Its primary use is to determine the angle between a celestial object and the horizon which is known as the object's altitude. Making this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object, or taking a sight and it is an essential part of celestial navigation. The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart. Common uses of the sextant include sighting the sun at solar noon and sighting Polaris at night, to find one's latitude (in northern latitudes). A sextant can also be held horizontally to measure the angle between any two landmarks which allows for calculation of a position on a chart. A sextant can also be used to measure the lunar distance between the moon and another celestial object (e.g., star, planet) in order to determine Greenwich time which is important because it can then be used to determine the longitude. The scale of a sextant has a length of ⅙ of a turn (60°); hence the sextant's name (sextāns, -antis is the Latin word for "one sixth"). An octant is a similar device with a shorter scale (⅛ turn, or 45°), whereas a quintant (⅕ turn, or 72°) and a quadrant(¼ turn, or 90°) have longer scales. 5-17-04 8. Hadley’s Quadrant/Octant: The octant, also called reflecting quadrant, is a measuring instrument used primarily in navigation. It is a type of reflecting instrument. The name octant derives from the Latin octans meaning eighth part of a circle, because the instrument's arc is one eighth of a circle.
Reflecting quadrant derives from the instrument using mirrors to reflect the path of light to the observer and, in doing so, doubles the angle measured. This allows the instrument to use a one-eighth of a turn to measure a quarter-turn or quadrant. Hadley's first reflecting quadrant was a simple device with a frame spanning a 45° arc. In the image at the right, from Hadley's article in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, you can see the nature of his design. A small sighting telescope was mounted on the frame along one side. One large index mirror was mounted at the point of rotation of the index arm. A second, smaller horizon mirror was mounted on the frame in the line of sight of the telescope. The horizon mirror allows the observer to see the image of the index mirror in one half of the view and to see a distant object in the other half. A shade was mounted at the vertex of the instrument to allow one to observe a bright object. The shade pivots to allow it to move out of the way for stellar observations. Observing through the telescope, the navigator would sight one object directly ahead. The second object would be seen by reflection in the horizon mirror. The light in the horizon mirror is reflected from the index mirror. By moving the index arm, the index mirror can be made to reveal any object up to 90° from the direct line of sight. When both objects are in the same view, aligning them together allows the navigator to measure the angular distance between them. Very few of the original reflecting quadrant designs were ever produced. One, constructed by Baradelle, is in the collection if the Musée de la Marine, Paris. 5-18-04 9. Portable Soup: Portable soup was a kind of dehydrated food used in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was a precursor of the later meat extract and bouillon cubes, and of industrially dehydrated food. It is also known as pocket soup or veal glew. It is a cousin of the glace de viande of French cooking. It was long a staple of seamen and explorers, for it would keep for many months or even years. In this context, it was a filling and nutritious dish. Soup was made in the usual way reduced, degreased—or the fat would go rancid—and then reduced repeatedly until it took on the consistency of jelly. Once it was sufficiently gelatinous to hold its form, it was placed on pieces of flannel or unglazed earthenware dishes and rotated regularly to dry it further. This was a seasonal process attempted only in the winter when humidity was low. Once dry, it was wrapped in paper and stored in boxes. Portable soup is held to have been invented by Mrs Dubois, a London tradeswoman. Together with William Cookworthy, she won a contract to manufacture it for the Royal Navy in 1756. However, the existence of portable soups (called "bouillons en tablettes" in French) is thus mentioned, as early as 1690, in Antoine Furetière's Dictionnaire universel, under the article Tablette: "On a veu des consommés reduits en tablettes, ou des bouillons à porter en poche." ("We have seen consommés reduced into tablets, or broth to carry in your pocket.") 5-18-04 10. Oilskin: Oilskin can mean
A fabric like canvas with a layer of oil applied to it as waterproofing, often linseed oil. Traditional types of oilskin included:
Heavy cotton cloth waterproofed with linseed oil,
Sailcloth waterproofed with a thin layer of tar.
Oilskins, a garment made of oilskin or of other heavy waterproof material (excluding gabardine and similar fabrics). Such garments include:
Other wet-weather clothes
Coats, vests and chaps for use on the stations of Australia.
These days, oilskins or oilies means a foul-weather gear made of modern synthetic and often quite advanced fabrics and worn by sailors. (At sea, moisture can come from sea spray as well as rain.)
Used during the Lewis and Clark Expedition by being made into bags. 5-19-04 11. A calumet is a ceremonial smoking pipe used by some indigenous American nations. Traditionally it has been smoked to seal a covenant ortreaty, or to offer prayers in a religious ceremony. "Calumet" is a Norman word, first recorded in David Ferrand's la Muse normande around 1625–1655. Its first meaning was "sort of reeds used to make pipes", with a suffix substitution for calumel. It corresponds to the French word chalumeau 'reeds' (Modern French also 'straw', 'blowlamp'). Then it was used by Norman-French settlers in Canadato describe the ceremonial pipes they saw in use among the First Nations people of the region. A common material for calumet pipe bowls is red pipestone or catlinite, a fine-grained easily-worked stone of a rich red color of theCoteau des Prairies, west of the Big Stone Lake in South Dakota. The pipestone quarries have traditionally been neutral ground among warring tribes, as people from multiple nations journeyed to the quarry to obtain the sacred pipestone.
Tobacco, Nicotiana rustica, is used sparingly and often mixed with other herbs, barks, and plant matter, most often Kinnikinnick.
Some northern Sioux people used long, stemmed pipes for ceremonies while others such as the Catawba in the southeast used ceremonial pipes formed as round, footed bowls with a tubular smoke tip projecting from each cardinal direction on the bowl. 5-19-04 12. Tomahawk: A tomahawk (also referred to as a hawk) is a type of axe from North America, traditionally resembling a hatchet with a straight shaft. The name came into the English language in the 17th century as an adaptation of the Powhatan (Virginian Algonquian) word. Tomahawks were general purpose tools used by Native Americans and European Colonials alike, and often employed as a hand-to-hand or a thrown weapon, much like the African nzappa zap. The metal tomahawk heads were originally based on a Royal Navy boarding axe and used as a trade-item with Native Americans for food and other provisions. Pre-contact Indians lacked ironmaking technology, so tomahawks were not fitted with metal ax heads until they could be obtained from trade with Europeans. The tomahawk's original designs were fitted with heads of bladed or rounded stone or deer antler, or were carved with a wooden head in the shape of a large knob, which functioned as a club with crushing rather than cutting force. The modern tomahawk shaft is usually less than 2 ft (61 cm) in length, traditionally made of hickory, ash, or maple. The heads weigh anywhere from 9–20 oz (260–570 g), with a cutting edge usually not much longer than four inches (10 cm) from toe to heel. The poll can feature a small hammer, spike or simply be rounded off, and they usually do not have lugs. These sometimes had a pipe-bowl carved into the poll, and a hole drilled down the center of the shaft for smoking tobacco through the tomahawk. There are also metal-headed versions of this unusual pipe. Pipe tomahawks are artifacts unique to North America: created by Europeans as trade objects but often exchanged as diplomatic gifts. They are powerful symbols of the choice Europeans and Indians faced whenever they met: one end was the pipe of peace, the other an axe of war.
In Colonial French territory, a very different random tomahawk design, closer to the ancient francisca, was in use by French settlers and Indigenous Peoples. In the late 18th Century, the British army issued tomahawks to their Colonial Regulars during the American Revolutionary War as a weapon and tool. Its most notable difference from conventional axes is a smaller 'head'. Pipe Found Patrick- husband
Krista, Mikayla, and Rachel- sister wives