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The Universe

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Tenshi Mori

on 27 April 2014

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Transcript of The Universe

Welcome to the Universe
By Tenshi, Do-Kyoung, Alex and Stefano
Most abundant form of galaxy
Old and dim
"Stretched out," sometimes cigar-shaped
Size ranges from dwarf elliptical galaxies -10% of the Milky Way - to more than a million light-years across, and can contain more than ten trillion stars
M87, one of the biggest galaxies in the universe, is eliptical
Elliptical Galaxies
Characterized by bulging center and spiral arms
Disk includes stars, planets, dust, and gas
Milky Way Galaxy is about 100,000 light-year long
Spiral Galaxies
A supernova is a stellar explosion that are extremely luminous and cause a burst of radiation that often briefly outshines an entire galaxy.
During this interval a supernova can radiate as much energy as the Sun is expected to emit over its entire life span.
There are two ways this phenomenon could occur, either by the sudden re-ignition of nuclear fusion in a degenerate star; or by the collapse of the core of a massive star.
Rogue Planets are nomadic, orphan planets who are not part of any solar/planetary system.
They have been either ejected out of their system or they were never part of a system.
They orbit randomly around the galaxy.
Rogue Stars or Hyper velocity stars are stars that were violently stripped apart from the mother star, most likely from a black hole. When a star system gets too close to a black hole, the planets will most likely be grabbed into the black hole’s immense gravitational field but some will also be sling shot out.
Rogue Planets
Irregular Galaxies
An Interstellar Cloud of dust, Hydrogen, Helium, and other gases.
These abundant amounts of gas, dust and other materials clump together at "gravitational centres" and once there is enough mass, stars are formed.
The remaining materials then form planets and other planetary objects in a solar system.
Neutron Star
- 4 to 8 times the mass of the sun compressed into about 10km radius star

- Can rotate up to 43,000 times per second

-Neutron stars are so dense that a teaspoon of it would weigh a billion tons

Dying Red Giants runs out of fuel
Collapses on itself, causing a Supernova in the outer layer
Any decrease in wavelength (increase in frequency).
This shifts the color from the red end of the spectrum to the blue end (in visible light).
This term also stands for when photons outside the visible spectrum (x-rays and radio waves) are shifted toward shorter wavelengths.
caused by relative motion toward the observer
At the same time in the inner layer, the proton and the electron fuses together to make a neutron
Redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
Whether or not the radiation is within the visible spectrum.
Increase in wavelength - equivalent to a lower frequency and a lower photon energy.

-Rotating Neutron Stars emitting EM Waves
-The high energy bursts come from the immense rotation speed
Doppler Effect
One thing that relates these two is the Doppler Effect.
change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source.
Spin Axis
Magnetic Axis
Galaxy Collision
H-R Diagram
-Magnetic field that is a 1000 times strong than a neutron star
The Andromeda–Milky Way collision - will happen in about 4 billion years between the two largest galaxies in the Local group; the Milky Way (contains our solar system/Earth) and the Andromeda Galaxy.

The Andromeda Galaxy contains about 1 trillion stars, while Milky Way contains about 300 billion. The possiblilty of the two stars colliding is very unlikely because of the great distances between the stars.

-The transition of Neutron star to Magnetar is still unknown
- Quasi-stellar Radio sources or Quasars
- Must be powered by a super-massive black hole to be active.
- Must consume sufficient amount of matter to stay active
-Expels great amount of charged particles and radiation
-Quasars emit tremendous amounts of energy
-Shine anywhere from 10 to 100,000 times brighter than the Milky Way.

Matter being sucked in
Radiation and charged particles being ejected
Center of our Milky Way Galaxy
So What's in the center of our galaxy?
Super massive Black holes
-Center of almost all galaxy
-Sagittarius A
- vicinity of the center is desely packed with 1000s of stars orbitting at high speed
The Structure, Size, and Scale of the Universe
The observable universe is 13.8 billion light-years in radius
Therefore, astronomers can look into space in any direction as far as 13.8 billion light-years away
But, due to the universe's expansion, that same spot 13.8 billion light-years away at the time of the Big Bang is now 46 billion light-years away
So, the universe's diameter is around 93 billion light-years
Contains at least 100 billion galaxies
According to NASA, scientists know that the universe is flat with only about a 0.4 percent margin of error (as of 2013). A flat universe is an infinite universe; thus the size of the universe is infinite.

By Tenshi, Alex, Stefano, and Do-Kyoung
Galaxy Collision (cont.)

The Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies each has a central supermassive black hole, one being Sagittarius A and the other being an object within the P2 concentration (Andromeda’s nucleus).

Black holes converge near the center of the new formed galaxy, transferring orbital energy to stars that will move to higher orbits by gravitationally interaction, that would take about millions of years.

Galaxy Collision (cont.)
When they come within one light year of one another, they emit gravitational waves that would radiate further orbital energy until they merge. Gas taken up by the combined black hole that might become a luminous quasar or an active galactic nucleus.

M33, the Triangulum Galaxy – the third largest and brightest galaxy of the Local Group is also thought to be part of the collision. It will most likely end up orbiting the combined remnant of the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies, until it merges in the future.

The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram shows the relationships and differences between stars.

It shows stars of different ages and in different stages.

The position of each dot on the diagram shows its luminosity (or absolute magnitude) and its temperature.

The vertical axis represents the star’s luminosity (absolute magnitude).

The horizontal axis represents the star’s surface temperature

Example of HR Diagram
Not Spiral or Elliptical
appear misshapen and lack a distinct form
gravitational influence of other galaxies close by or the result of galaxy collision
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