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GCSE PE Skeletal System
Transcript of GCSE PE Skeletal System
Shape - maintaining our basic body shape. Also affects body composition & frame size. Movement - at joints Protection
Bones are tough and protect delicate organs, such as the skull protecting the brain. List bones that you think
provide protection. What do they protect? Blood-cell Production -
This takes place in the bone marrow. Where does movement occur? Skeletal system 1.2.5 Learning Objectives: To understand the 3 main functions of the skeletal system. What are the three main functions of the skeleton? Support & shape
also Blood-cell Production.
Ligaments - Connective Tissue Good Progress -
Outstanding Progress - The amount of movement that occurs differs between different joints Immovable Freely moveable Slightly moveable synovial vertebrae skull Majority of joints - Shoulder, wrist where bony surfaces are covered by cartlidge, connected by ligaments with a joint cavity containing synovial fluid What is synovial? Flexion Movements Bending or flexing a limb. Example: the leg can be
flexed at the knee. Straightening or
extending a limb Extension Example - the arm
can be extended at
the elbow. Moving a limb AWAY from the centre line of the body. ABDuction Example: The leg can be moved away from the centre of the body at the hip. Moving a limb towards the centre line of the body. ADDuction Example: The arm can be moved TOWARDS the
centre of the body at the shoulder. ADD
body! Abduct a child is to TAKE AWAY! This is a turning or rotational movement of a limb or body part. Rotation Example: the head can be rotated at the neck. kicking a ball in football You need a specific sporting
example for each movement!! First phase of a star jump in gymnastics waiting in the blocks for a sprint The follow through
of a shot in basketball Muscular
System Good Progress -
Outstanding Progress - SKELETAL/VOLUNTARY 3 different types CARDIAC INVOLUNTARY Majority of muscles Are under conscious control Examples - Biceps & Hamstring A form of involuntary muscles Work automatically Are only found int he wall of the heart Cannot
control Found in walls of the intestine & blood vessels Main Muscles in the body Tough, flexible tissue that acts as a buffer between the bones at joints Very strong, non -elastic cords that join the muscles to the bone Bands of fibre attached to the bones that link joints - they help to keep joints stable Bicep = Extends the arm at hinge joint at the elbow + located at the front of the arm between the shoulder and elbow joint. Muscles & Functions How does muscular movement take place? Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Muscles can only PULL and cannot push. Muscles work in pairs, each contracting or relaxing in turn to create movement. Muscles & Movement Movement of the arm
at the elbow Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Muscles can only PULL and cannot push. Muscles work in pairs, each contracting or relaxing in turn to create movement. Muscles & Movement Movement of the arm
at the elbow The humerus and scapular are stationary bones. The arm is being flexed. The insertion is where the tendon of the muscle joins the moving bone(s). The origin is where the tendon of the muscle joins the stationary bone(s). The radius and ulna are the moving bones. Insertion Origin When a muscle contracts, only one (or 2) bone(s) moves leaving the other stationary. The points at which the tendons are attached to the bone are known as the origin and the insertion. The Origin and Insertion Any Bones Insertion Origin Antagonist Agonist (prime mover) Extension (Straightening) of the Arm Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Ulna Radius Humerus Biceps: antagonist
relaxing muscle Triceps: agonist
contracting muscle Insertion Origin Locate and name the following parts involved in the extension of the arm: At Joints - i.e. where 2 or more bones meet. What are joints? What attaches bones to muscles?
Joints allow both fine (threading a needle)
and coarse (throwing a hammer) movements. Question Carousel!! Hinge Joints
elbow knee Ball and Socket joints hip shoulder Closed fractures
Stress Fractures Injuries to bones
Injuries to joints Tennis elbow
Torn Cartilage Rest
Diet and the skeletal system Calcium rich