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Types of Sentence Fragments

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NaTosha Stowers

on 10 December 2014

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Transcript of Types of Sentence Fragments

Sentence Fragments
Fixing Subordinate Clauses
Fixing subordinate clause fragments:

Two Options:

1) Remove the
subordinating conjunction
.

Fragment:
Because

the mini Australian Shepherd pup dislocated its leg.
Sentence:

The mini Australian Shepherd pup dislocated its leg.

2) Add a
main clause
to the fragment.

Fragment:
Because

the mini Australian Shepherd pup dislocated its leg.
Sentence:
I brought him to the vet
because

the mini Australian Shepherd pup dislocated its leg.
Sentence:
Because

the mini Australian Shepherd pup dislocated his leg
,

he has to wear a cast.


Subordinate Clause Fragment
Subordinate clause fragments
or a
dependent
clause fragment will begin with a
subordinate conjunction
, a
relative pronoun
, or
a relative adverb
. It will contain a subject and a verb; however, the sentence will not express a complete thought by itself.

Infinitive Phrase and Afterthought Fragments
Infinitive phrase fragments
begin with
to
followed by a
verb
. Infinitive phrase—by itself—cannot be a sentence.

1.)
To catch
butterflies for her biology project.





After thought fragment:
Words and phrases like
especially, except, excluding, for example, for instance, including, like, and such as
usually begins a afterthought fragment.

1.)
For example
, leaky pens, candy wrappers, dollar bills, and paperclips.
2.)
Including
the dog with three legs and the cat with one eye.


How to fix Participle Phrase Fragments
Adding the necessary
main clause
to the
fragment

Example:

Fragment:

Tanning themselves on the beach until they were red.

Sentence:

The ladies in white were
tanning themselves on the beach until they were red.
What is a fragment?
Incomplete sentences (dependent clauses or fragments) that lack at least one of the following:

Subject
Verb
Complete thought
Correcting Infinitive Phrases

Types of Fragments
1.) Subordinate Clause Fragments
2.) Participle Phrase Fragments
3) Infinitive Phrase Fragments
4.) Afterthought Fragments
5.) Lonely Verb Fragments
6.) Appositive Fragments

You need to know which type to know how to fix it! :)



1.)Adding a subject and converting the verb.
(NO COMMA RULES!)

Fragment:
To catch

butterflies for her Biology project
Sentence:
Yadi caught butterflies for her Biology project.

OR

2.)Attaching the infinitive phrase fragment after the main clause

Sentence:
Yadi asked the Biology club

to catch
butterflies for her
Biology project.



Lonely Verb Fragments
Appositive Fragments
Participle Phrase Fragments
Will begin with a word ending in -ing or -ed
By itself a participle phrase cannot be independent
Example of a Subordinate Clause Fragment:
Because
the mini Australian Shepherd pup dislocated its leg.

Because
=
Subordinate conjunction
pup
=
subject
dislocated
=
verb
Fragment:
Throwing the ball.

Sentence:
Throwing the ball at someone's head results in bruises.
Comma rules for fixing subordinate
clauses by adding a main clause.
Main clause
+
subordinate clause
Subordinate clause
+ , +
main clause
Example:

We will continue to giggle

until Ceci notices the toilet paper stuck to her shoe.
Example:
Even though Jesus stuck straws up his nose
,

Jeff ate his sandwich and continued to ignore him.
Comma Rules for Fixing Participle Phrase Fragments
Participle Phrase
+ , +
main clause
Main Clause

+ , +

Participle phrase
Example:
Molly marched at the front of the parade
,

followed by a line of trumpets
.
Example:
Watching the funny movie
,

Luke sipped on a large Pepsi.
Main Clause
+

Participle phrase
Example:
The ladies in white were
tanning themselves on the beach until they were red.
1)
2)
3)

1.) Insert the missing subject and verb so that you have a main clause for fragments beginning in
for example or for instance

Fragment:

For example
,

hangers, clothes, and shoes.

Sentence:

For example
,

the closet contained hangers, clothes, and shoes.

2.)Attach the afterthought fragment to the end of a main clause for fragments beginning in
such as, except, including, and excluding
.
Fragment:
Such as

leaving dirty dishes in the sink and dirty pots on stove
Sentence:

Johnny has many bad habits

such as
leaving dirty dishes in the sink and dirty pots on the stove.
Once again the comma rule goes:
Main clause
+
afterthought fragment
Afterthought Fragment
+ , +
Main clause
Missing a subject.
Sometimes begin with coordinating conjunctions (and, but, nor, so, for, yet, or).
But knew
that all of his effort would prove useless in the long run.

And dashed
through the downpour.
Examples:
Fixing Lonely Verb Fragments
1.) Insert a Subject
Fragment:
And dashed
through the downpour.
Sentence:

Nathan dashed through the downpour.

2.)
Main clause

+

Lonely verb phrase
Fragment:
But knew
that all of her effort would prove useless in the long run.
Sentence:

Grace began counting the hairs on her head

but knew
that all of her effort would prove useless in the long run.


An appositive is a noun phrase that renames/clarifies another noun in the sentence. It can not stand alone.


The cruel English teacher that made us learn six different types of fragments

To Fix Appositives
1.)
Appositive

+,+

main clause.
Fragment:

the cruel English teacher that made us learn six different types of fragments.

Sentence:
The cruel English teacher that made us learn six different types of fragments
,

Mrs. Stowers loved taking notes.

2.)
Main clause

+,+
Appositive.
Sentence:
Mrs. Stowers loved taking notes
,
a

detailed plan for fixing fragments.

3.)
Noun

+,+
Appositive
+,+

details.
Sentence:
Mrs. Stowers
,
t
he cruel English teacher
,

made us take notes.
Correcting Afterthought Fragments:
They all want to be independent though, so we will learn how to fix them in
order to make them complete sentences!

http://www.djbooth.net/index/tracks/review/webbie-ft-lil-boosie-independent
Independent
Dependent
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