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Research Methods Lecture VI: Nonreactive Measures

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Jean-Michel Sotiron

on 27 October 2015

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Transcript of Research Methods Lecture VI: Nonreactive Measures

Research Methods Lecture VI
Nonreactive Measures
Today's Lecture
Nonreactive/
Unobtrusive Observation

My friend Cassianne the epidemiologist
Content Analysis
Secondary Data Analysis
Your turn!
Manufacturing Consent
Content Analysis: An example
Physical Evidence Analysis
Examples:
Content Analysis
Four (4) Broad Categories
-OBSERVATION, unobtrusive non-participant fieldwork
Bert Young Memorial Scholarship
-Begging to give you money
Measuring Human Behaviour
Limits of reactive research
Roll call
Bert Young Memorial Scholarship
Nonreactive measures
Report #2: Generations
Four (4) Types
Four (4) Strengths
1. More valid and reliable means for measuring behaviour than reactive survey method.Why?
Two (2) Weaknesses
Inappropriate for measuring thoughts, beliefs, opinions and motivations.
Avoids Leading Questions
Cannot test for causality (cause – effect), only suggestive.
2. Considered more ethically sound practice than more intrusive, direct contact with research subjects.
3. Considered to reduce interviewer effect and bias
4. Very creative and ingenious techniques
Examples:
• Magazine covers• Musical Lyrics• News Media• Portrayal of minorities in film
Why Use Content Analysis?
Useful when there is a large quantity of text to cover with sampling and a coding sheet.
• Direction
What Do You Measure?
Coding, Validity, and Reliability
• Manifest Coding: High reliability, Low validity
What if there's too much content?
Sampling!
• Define the population
Intentions
Limitations of Content Analysis
Symbols & Meanings
Secondary Data Analysis
My own research on Hindu Nationalism
Yes, Minister
2/21
20/21
Have you ever felt observed?
-PHYSICAL TRACES, erosion and accretion
-SECONDARY ANALYSIS, archival/existing data/
document analysis
-CONTENT ANALYSIS
• Toilet graffiti
• Looking in people’s garbage (empty
bottles of alcohol)
• Garage sales
• Cemeteries (patterns of birth and
death)
• Limitations
• Privacy issues
• Guesswork problem: Must rule out
alternative hypotheses
Useful when the subject cannot ethically or logistically be studied directly.
Useful for ascertaining other levels or dimensions of meaning in a text or object
• Frequency
• Intensity
• Space
• Prominence
• Important point:
Must be replicable!
• Latent Coding: Low reliability, High validity
• Use both!
• Intercoder reliability:
Several people coding
Measured 0 to 1.
• Select the sampling element (your unit of analysis)
• Create a sampling frame
• Use a random selection process
Unknown effect
Need to conduct other research, such as experiments
-What have you got to lose?
-Good practice to rule the world
Part of a process
Exercise R: The life of a refugee
Focus: Syrian Refugees in Europe
Look at various pictures of the situation.
Task:
Think of the daily reality.
Think of Maslow.
Write a letter to a loved one, describing your situation and your thoughts and feelings.
Teams of 2-3.
Why this exercise?
Picture sample
Full transcript