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Marine Biology - History Ch.1

A history of Marine Biology and the people responsible for beginning the research that taught us about the ocean and the organisms that live in it.
by

Claire Stubendorff

on 1 September 2016

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Transcript of Marine Biology - History Ch.1



The Phoenicians 1200 B.C.
Navigation using the stars
The sea is primarily a food source
Numerous references to ocean navigation in
Greek Mythology
Greek God of
the Sea - Poseidon

Marine Institutions
Station Biologique de Roscoff
Founded by the College of France in 1859, Concarneau, France
Originally built to farm fish for food but now used for marine research.
Pioneers in Marine
Biology
Rachel Carson 1907-1964
Educated at Chatham University in Pennsylvania and then at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. Further study at Woods Hole, MBL.
Most notable work on the harm pesticides have on ecosystems in "Silent Spring" (1962), particularly DDT.
Marine Biology Today & in the Future
New Technologies
Better sampling tools means more accurate information about the ocean.
Better understanding of ecosystems and global conditions means we can determine the health of the oceans more accurately.
Introducing Marine Biology
Early Civilizations
Aristotle 384-322 B.C.
Father of Marine Biology
First recorded observations about marine organisms.
First to note that whales are mammals.
What is Marine Biology
Different Areas of Study
Early Expeditions
Cook's Ship the HMS Endeavour
Captain Cook 1728-1779 - Britain
25-year-old Naturalist Joseph Banks made notes of many new species, particularly off the coast of Australia just south of Sydney.
Cook named this place "Botany Bay" because of all the new species.
Captain James Cook
Joseph Banks
Botany Bay
Charles Darwin 1809-1882
5 year voyage on the HMS Beagle
Theory of Natural Selection published in his "On the Origin of Species" 1859.
Used fossils & living species, island vs. mainland species on the Galapagos Islands vs. South America.
Sir Charles Thomson
1830-1882 HMS Challenger
Purely Research Mission
Deep sea samples disproved previous theory that life couldn't exist below 1,800 feet.
Major Discoveries
4,717 new species;
The first systematic plot of currents and temperatures in the ocean;
A map of bottom deposits much of which has remained current to the present;
An outline of the main contours of the ocean basins; and
The discovery of the mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Beyond Challenger
Deepest part of the Ocean is named "Challenger Deep" at the end of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean.
10,898 meters or 35,755 feet or 6.77 miles
3 successful manned expeditions
2012 Film Maker James Cameron expedition in the single-man deep sea submersible "Deepsea Challenger."
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
National Marine Fisheries Service established Woods Hole as a collection station in 1871.
Also here is the Marine Biological Laboratory (1888) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (1930)
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Established by William E. Ritter in 1903 and became part of the University of California system in 1912.
World's leading marine/oceanographic educational institution, (La Jolla, CA just north of San Diego).
Friday Harbor Laboratories
Established 1903 in Friday Harbor, Washington
World-renowned marine biology educational institution
Monterey Bay Aquarium and
Research Institute (MBARI)
Aquarium (1984) along Cannery Row, where fish used to be canned in the early 1900s.
MBARI (1987) at Moss Landing, CA founded with money from the Packard Family of (HP, the computer company)
Friday Harbor, WA
Monterey Bay Aquarium
Moss Landing
Birch Aquarium
Woods Hole
Dr. Sylvia Earle (1935-)
Degrees from Florida State, Duke, Berkeley and Harvard.
Led the Sustainable Seas Expeditions (1998-2000)
Led Mission Blue (2009) seeking to establish marine sanctuaries all over the world.
Set the deep dive record at 1,250 ft. in a "Jim Suit" in 1979. Her record remains unbroken!
Dr. Robert Ballard (1942-)
From San Diego, educated at USC
Joined the Navy as an Oceanographer
Further study at Woods Hole
Best known for discovering the Titanic using remotely operated vehicles like "Argo" and "Jason".
Further exploration of Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents along the Mid-Ocean Ridge originally discovered by the HMS Challenger.
hydrothermal vents
Titanic Wreckage
Jacques Cousteau
(1910-1997)
used new scuba gear and invented the regulator to allow for longer dives.
known for filming underwater which he showcased on his show "Cousteau Odyssey"
Marine Biology is the study of life in the oceans and other saltwater environments such as estuaries and wetlands. All plant and animal life forms are included from the microscopic picoplankton all the way to the majestic blue whale, the largest creature in the sea—and for that matter in the world.
Sampling Tools
Nets & Trawls
Mud Grab & Water Samplers
Density, Oxygen, Salinity, Turbidity & Temperature instruments
Sonar & Satellites
Chemical tests (nitrates, phosphates & potentially toxic chemicals)
ROVs and Deep Sea Cameras
Submersibles & Floating platforms
S.C.U.B.A. and other diving equipment
Environmental Awareness & Activism
Global warming & Climate change, Pollution, Habitat Destruction, etc.
Laws protecting wildlife
Marine sanctuaries and public outcry for preserving marine life.
Beach Cleanups

Chemical Oceanography
water chemistry, salinity, oxygen, pH, nitrates & phosphates, nutrient cycles and pollution/toxins.

Physical Oceanography
large and small oceanic currents, tides, weather and other physical factors.
Geological Oceanography
geological formations, ocean floor mapping, volcanic activity, island formation, earthquakes (tsunamis)

Biological Oceanography
ecosystems & organisms that are part of the food webs, biological effects of pollution (biomagnification), conservation efforts.
plankton net
trawl net
otter trawl
mud grab
Van Dorn Water Sampler
Refractometer
(salinity)
Sea Launch
remotely
opporated
vehicle
submarines
S.C.U.B.A. - Self-Contained Underwater Breating Apparatus
the Jim Suit
or Atmospheric Diving Suit
maintains surface pressure
Ancient Pacific Islanders
Expert mariners, used winds, weather and currents to navigate long distances in small boats.
Vast knowledge of Eastern Seas.
Vikings
Explored the north Atlantic
995 Viking Leif Eriksson discovered the northern part of North America
Arab Traders
Explored eastern Africa to India
Long Distance Voyages
Christopher Columbus
Ferdinand Magellan
Vasco da Gama
Scientific Study
What does it mean to study something in a scientific way?
Scientific = science from the Latin "scientia" meaning knowledge.
Method = a series of steps
Scientific Method is a series of logical steps used to gain knowledge about the world.
Different Ares
scientific method song
Columbus
Magellan
da Gama
Project: Navigation
You are an explorer trying to discover a route from your home port to a destination that promises great wealth and riches.
Step 1:
Identify your home port on a map using latitude and longitude coordinates.
Step 2:
Use a map and on-line resources to figure out where your destination is.
Step 3:
Start planning your voyage. You will need:
Places to stop every 7-10 days for food and water.
knowledge of major ocean and wind patterns to use to propel you in the right direction.
You and your crew of 100 sailors and other specialists are traveling by sailboat. That means no power but the wind, currents and tides to get to where you want to go!
Step 4:
What you will need to show.
Map with route traced in red and ocean & wind currents (labeled) that you will be using [ocean = blue and green = wind].
A written itinerary (list) of stops with approximate dates of arrival & departure.
"Man cannot discover new oceans unless he has the courage to lose sight of the shore."
Andre Gide
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