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AP World History- Time Traveler
Transcript of AP World History- Time Traveler
One stormy evening as I was looking through my AP World History textbook, lightning struck my desk and before I knew it, I was traveling back in time..
Back in the Americas once again! Norte Chico was different from the last civilization I visited. They had fairly small cities that were peaceful, I found no sign of warfare anywhere I went. Norte Chico is theocratic, as they believe in a staff god, which looked evil with strange features. However, I noticed they had a form of economic hierarchy as the elite had control over the economic industries. They also kept track of accounting through using the quipu. Norte Chico is famous for their large fishing industry such as anchovies and sardines. They imported maize or corn and traded for cotton to make fishing nets, and food products. While I walked along and admired their amazing infrastructures such as apartments and plazas,it was all bland.There was little visual art, but they made up for that as they played music.
Walk like an Egyptian! Egypt was a centralized state with power in the hands of the Pharaohs, however they did have many government officials helping manage the state. Hierarchy thrived here, as the pharaoh was at the top, then government officials/Priests, workers, and slaves. Women had many legal rights such as divorce and property, but they were still seen as inferior. Egyptians were polytheistic and believed in many gods; however, they had a very positive view of the after life. They also believed that the pharaoh was a god in human form. Egyptians had many vast marketplaces where they focused their agricultural goods such as wheat and barley. They had long distance trade in Africa, especially Nubia, where they traded luxury goods. Even with this, Egypt was dependent on the Nile for agriculture/wealth. Egypt is famous for heighylopics, pyramids, and their irrigation system to control the Nile.
Wow! Here I was in the first Neolithic city! The first thing I noticed? The strange way they traveled! They were very developed and they walked on top of the clusters of houses! Doors were on the roof to allow for entrance. As I walked along the houses, I was shocked to find that the citizens of Catalhuyuk were fairly peaceful and content as they govern themselves. Economically speaking, they were fairly agricultural but they were beginning the domestication of animals. They traded with other civilizations and exported tools, while they imported shells. There was no social classes or signs of a patriarchy as women were able to do as they pleased. I was unsure of what religion they practiced, but they had many figurines of women, men, and animals.
Didn't I just come from Egypt? Oh wait, this is Nubia! Nubia almost seems like a mini Egypt as they were controlled by Egypt many times. As they did have political and military control from Egypt at times, they still remained independent. They were largely influenced by Egypt as they worshiped Egyptian gods and goddesses, used some heighylopic writing, and even had pyramids! While they had a love/hate relationship with Egypt they traded luxury goods with them. The only thing they weren't influenced by was Egypt's hierarchy.
There was tension in the air, as Hammurabi had strict law codes, with a strict hierarchy. If you broke Hammurabi's code, your punishment depended on your social/economic status. The laws were set for a patriarchal society, as women figures in religion slowly disappeared. Mesopotamian's were polytheistic; however, unlike Egypt they had a negative view of the afterlife. Mesopotamia was a agricultural society, but specialization of jobs began to appear as some Mesopotamian's started shops selling goods such as perfumes to citizens. Mesopotamia thrived under Hammurabi by the agricultural society but also by requiring taxes from lower classes to pay for public works such as public baths, sewage systems, and streets in a grid like pattern.
Hello Harrapa! Harrapa is a centralized state for urban planning, as they had standardized bricks. It is peaceful as there is no build up of weapons or warfare. There seems to be no social classes as the dead is buried in the same formal way, unlike Egypt's pyramids. Harrapa has similar irrigation to Mesopotamia, they harvest wheat, barely, and sesame. They trade with Mesopotamia, Southern India, and the Middle East for gold,silver, and copper. Their religious beliefs seem a bit odd, as they have no temples but their deities look male and animalistic/spirtual. They also have many small stone seals. Harrapa is mainly famous for its urban planning such as large homes, public baths, sewage, and roads. However, they were the first to domesticate the elephant, and turn cotton to cloth!
As I traveled to Pasargadae,Persia's capital, I noticed the diversity of the art, architecture, religion and culture.Yet, a factor in Persian architecture and art besides the diversity and blending of different cultures, is the delicate gold work.It truly showed the different nations that Cyrus the Great conquered. Cyrus conquered these nations, but would keep the leaders to help govern their lands, as long as they followed imperial law. Persia was very tolerant over different cultures and religions,including Judaism,Christianity, and Islam. Persia did require tribute.Persia gained wealth from agriculture and voyages to look for new resources; however, when they conquered Lydia they learned of coinage which helped boost economic activity in the Persian empire. Social classes were unique to the provinces.They usually would look similar to other civilizations with the elites on top and slaves on the bottom of the social ladder. Persia had some very unique innovations which included the first postal system, charter of human rights, and banking.
Ah! Athens! The tension in the air could be cut with a knife. Athens, the founder of democracy, sided with Corcyra. Sparta takes this as a threat. Thebes, an ally of Sparta attacks Plataea. War pursues! But lets go in depth about Athens, Athen's leader through this is Perciles. He makes Athen's democracy, a real democracy..to some extent. Before this change, only rich men were allowed to vote. A patriarchy thrives as women are seen as inferior. However, they do have some leverage in religious festivals. As the Greeks are polytheistic, and worship gods' and goddesses such as Athena. Economically, owning land meant wealth, as there is little in Greece. Mainly, there is farmers who work the land as a living.Besides this, the Greeks are in need of iron which sends them on voyages. The Greeks are going through their golden age, literature flourishes, the great Greek theatre, great thinkers such as Plato,Plato's academy, and libraries.
Han China-200 CE
Confucianism thrived in Han China, as it was the majority in the government. Confucianism is the belief that government on the consent of the people. With this came a strict patriarchy. However through this, Han China's economy boomed with the increase of population, trade and industry such as the silk road, which China provided silk, porcelain, and paper among other products. On the social ladder, merchants were seen a as untrustworthy and below peasants.During this time China needed horses for their military which they obtained through trading with northern nomads. During this time, education thrived, even for women. Chang'an and Luoyang became important cultural centers.
Politically, Timbuktu was a monarchy and their first king was King Musa 1, who ordered a palace to be built. Geographically, Timbuktu was in the perfect position for trade along the trans-Saharan trade route where they traded salt, books,and gold.In Timbuktu women were seen as inferior but needed for agricultural production. Timbuktu was diverse with many foreigners and traders. It became a center for Islamic culture as they had libraries, universities, and three famous mosques.
I love islands! Being surrounded by water Srivijaya is a maritime power. They gained income from their ports and straits. They traded with India and China, they traded gold, tin, and spices. Srivijaya is an example of an early feudal system with vassals, and large landowners.Even with this, they are still a monarchy. Did Europe take notes from them? Srivijaya became a center for Buddhism as they built temples and monasteries. Srivijaya even spent money to send Buddhists to India! With Buddhism came equality for lower classes and women.
Quanzhou! What a lovely port. Quanzhou is one of the largest ports and some say it's the starting point for the maritime silk trade. Quanzhou is run by China, while it started in the Tang dynasty. It exports ceramics, silks, indigo, and sugar. It imports wool, cloth, and wine. There are many foreigners here, who bring their own culture and religion;however, many Persians and Arabs live here and they are mainly Muslim. Unlike the Chinese, they have more respect for merchants. Being a port, many great ships are built here such as junks.
Wow, it's hot, unlike NC.The Arabian Peninsula is very diverse, but it has similarities. The Arabian Peninsula was mainly a monarchy, and their leaders were also religious leaders as well. They led conquests to spread Islam. The population is mainly muslim as you can escape taxes if you're a muslim, but there is Christians and Jews as well. Overall, being a muslim is easier in the Arabian peninsula as they have advantages economically and socially. Women didn't have much power at this time. Since Muhammad was a merchant, they value trade and became large players in the sugar/spices trade, Trans-Saharan, and maritime trade. Trading also allowed for the spread of Islam. The Arabian Peninsula is a large center for education, as they had many libraries. They studied science, created the fundamentals of Algebra(Yeah, thanks a lot) and studied greek texts.
Back in NC! Finally! Oh wait, no I'm not. This is Keiven Kus. The temperatures are the same! Politically Keiven Kus is a monarchy with a grand prince as the head leader. They have many sons of princes controlling provinces, mainly collecting taxes. The official religion of Keiven Kus is Christianity, or specially Eastern Orthodox Christianity. The state has imperial rule over the church. Trading is important to Keiven Kus as they link Byzantium and Scandinavia. They trade furs, wax, and slaves. As it is easy to become a slave to the state by being in debt. Social classes include officials,freemen, slaves, and subordinate women, but how much land you owned boosted your social status. Keiven Kus borrowed not only Byzantium's religion but their artistic styles too as they copied their architecture, archs, and domes. Keiven Kus also has the Cyrillic alphabet.
Cordoba! Cordoba is ruled by Muslim Caliphs. Like in the Arabian peninsula, Islam was the official religion and those who weren't muslim typically had to pay special taxes and had requirements. Cordoba is going through their golden age, the economy is booming thanks to agriculture, infrastructure, and skilled artisans. In markets they had goods such as sugar cane, oranges, lemons, spices, almost anything you could think of! Cordoba is famous for its leather, metal work, glazed tiles and textiles.During this time the Great Mosque was built, thousands of public baths, and libraries. Some libraries holding thousands of books! They also had public lighting, and clean roads!
As I walk along the streets of Jerusalem, I see devastation everywhere. Arts and architecture destroyed, the economy almost tanked. All because of clashing religions. Muslims,Jews, and Christians all want to claim the Holy Land. Baldwin the first, a monarch, tried to keep things in line, but it failed. Economically, the only thing holding Jerusalem together is trade as they receive grain from Syria, banking activities, and taxes from pilgrims to help fund military expenses. As I walked along, there isn't much to see in the devastation. Social classes blended together but tensions between Jews, Christians, and Muslims remained.
Hello Moscow! Moscow under Mongol rule is quite different from Keiven Kus. The Mongols ruled from the steppes, however they had princes from the provinces to collect taxes. Economically, Moscow grew from the tribute system. Since the Mongols were religiously tolerant, the Orthodox church prospered. While they borrowed from the Bzyantinum empire with arts and architecture, during the Mongol rule Russian art prospered such as fresco painting. Socially, a patriarchy thrived, but women could have some influence in the church.
Aztecs (before Spanish rule)
Wow, what a strange culture.I see things that I haven't seen before as I walk around the capital, Tenochtitlan. The structure of the Aztec Empire was loose, and not centralized like many others I visited. They had many rebellions, but also conquered many smaller civilizations. Economically, the Aztecs prospered off of agriculture, they had these amazing innovations called floating gardens, that were man made gardens! They had large marketplaces that had items such as maize. They also prospered off of the conquered citizens. These citizens were required to pay tribute in luxury items,textiles, and clothing. Religiously, they believed in the sun god. To keep the sun god living, they needed to have sacrifices. Those that were at the bottom of the social ladder were slaves as they were sacrificed. Poetry of the sacrifices were common. The Aztecs also had canals and bridges in their empire.
Incas(After Spanish Rule)
As I go to the Inca Empire, I notice how centralized it is in the hands of the Spanish. The Spanish government in the Inca Empire would give land to Spaniards to gain wealth. Economically, they prospered from commercialized agriculture, gold and silver mining. They did this by forced labor for "protection" and "guidance" in the Christian faith. Socially, the Spanish were superior(however, Spanish women are seen as subordinate). There is many unique social classes as classes are based on racial heritage and skin color. The most famous social class is the mestizos or the children of Spanish men and Indian women. Even under the rule of the Spanish, local culture, such as folktales and religion survived.
Ah, Rome! Where's the pasta? In 100 CE, Rome was experiencing their Pax Romana, a 200 year peace. During this time, many modern things happened in their government, a Republic! Public assemblies, the Senate(Kay Hagan 2014), and consuls. Economically, Rome had a large sea based trade. From taxes we have great buildings such as the Colosseum(70AD). The language of Rome was Latin and urbanization was common during this time. During this time, Rome was still polytheistic and yes, they were cruel to Christians or those who didn't believe the same religion. Christians and women were at the bottom of the social ladder as women weren't represented in the government.
Back home, again! After traveling through time, I've learned so much. You can't learn about Egypt unless you walk like an Egyptian, or talk about Rome without dining like one. My AP class won't believe this.