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Counterculture of the 1960s
Transcript of Counterculture of the 1960s
A decade of experimentation, rebellion, and adventure
Why They Rebelled
The Vietnam War
Many Americans & Australians were unsatisfied with the military's involvement in Vietnam. A draft/conscription for soldiers only increased this anger.
A lack of civil rights legislation motivated many minority groups in America to push for laws requiring equality for all races and an end to discrimination.
1964 - Civil Rights Act of 1964 signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson
1965 - National Voting Rights Act of 1965 signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Outlawed discriminatory voting practices.
MLK's "I Have a Dream Speech"
Sexism and the rise
During the 1960s, women protested for equal rights and an end to discrimination based on gender
1968- In November, NOW member Shirley Chisholm became the first Black woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives
1966- In the US in June, the National Organization for Women (NOW) was established by a group of women to push for legislation and give women equal rights
Cuban Missile Crisis
CIA reference photograph of Soviet medium-range ballistic missile in Red Square, Moscow, possibly hidden in Cuba during the early 1960s.
Picture of Soviet missile silos in Cuba, taken by US spy planes on October 14, 1962.
As the threat of global nuclear warfare loomed over the United States in October of 1962, many Americans believed that the end was near, and philosophies on war and weapons changed forever
Cultural Revolution in China
Great Leap Forward
The idea behind the Great Leap was that rapid development of China's agricultural and industrial sections should take place parallel to each other. Many Americans feared this would cause a greater Communist threat to the US, as Mao Zedong grew in popularity and strength.
Mao Zedong led the People's Republic of China until his death in 1976. Some associate him with restoration and the repair of China, and it is accepted that he laid down the technological and economic foundation for modern China, but some blame him for 50 to 70 million deaths in the form of political purges and widespread starvation from 1949 to 1976. His existence was influential nonetheless.
Mao's cult of personality left many Americans feeling intimidated and worried about what a political figure this powerful could accomplish
Methods of Expression During The 1960s
Reagan called the Berkeley campus "a haven for communist sympathizers, protesters and sex deviants.", and sent 300 California Highway Patrol and Berkeley police officers into People's Park. The officers cleared an 8-block area around the park while a large section of what had been planted was destroyed, and an 8-foot tall perimeter chain-link wire fence was installed to keep people out and to prevent the planting of more trees, grass, flowers and shrubs. More than 3,000 people showed up to protest the park's defamation.
Governor Reagan declared a state of emergency in Berkeley and sent in 2,700 National Guard troops
30,000 people living around the University secured a city permit and marched past the chain link fence, other jumped the perimeter late at night to plant flowers in the lot
University of California- Berkely, CA
Many protesters secured city permits to allow massive demonstrations through city streets without police interference. Peace marches were a great way to gain publicity without excessive violence.
University of California, San Francisco
Peace March for Equal Rights
The Culmination of Woodstock 1969
An overhead view of the Woodstock festival, showing only a small percentage of conctertgoers
The Woodstock Festival took place in White Lake, New York from August 15-17, 1969. More than 500,000 people attended, yet only around 50,000 were expected by local residents. Woodstock is listed as one of Rolling Stone magazine's "Top 50 Moments That Changed the History of Rock and Roll". It was advertised as "3 Days of Peace & Music".
32 acts performed over the course of 4 days
Although the festival was remarkably peaceful given the number of people and the conditions involved, there were two recorded deaths: one from what was believed to be a heroin overdose and another caused in an accident when a tractor ran over an attendee sleeping in a nearby hayfield. There also were two births recorded at the event (one in a car caught in traffic and another in a hospital after an airlift by helicopter).
Experimentation with Drug Use
From the 1983 autobiography "Flashbacks"-
"'Turn on' meant go within to activate your neural and genetic equipment. Become sensitive to the many and various levels of consciousness and the specific triggers that engage them. Drugs were one way to accomplish this end. 'Tune in' meant interact harmoniously with the world around you - externalize, materialize, express your new internal perspectives. 'Drop out' suggested an elective, selective, graceful process of detachment from involuntary or unconscious commitments. 'Drop Out' meant self-reliance, a discovery of one's singularity, a commitment to mobility, choice, and change. Unhappily my explanations of this sequence of personal development were often misinterpreted to mean 'Get stoned and abandon all constructive activity'." (Timothy Leary)
Pink Elephant Blotters containing 150 micrograms of LSD
During the 1960s, frequent drug use became more socially acceptable, especially with college students and teenagers. The youth of America wanted to expand their minds and explore altered levels of consciousness. Drug use was also seen as a form of protest to the government, as most drugs used during the 1960s were highly illegal.
Marijuana was another popular drug used during the 1960s, mostly due to its euphoric effects and widespread availability
During the '60s, "free love" was embraced and became socially acceptable. This included practicing and appreciating the natural beauty of sex, as well as freedom in choosing sexual partners. Due to the availability of "the pill", an advanced form of female contraception, sexual promiscuity rose significantly.
The San Francisco Diggers
The San Francisco Diggers were a group formed
by Billy Landout and Emmett Grogan in response to the Hippies in Haight-Ashbury, a popular Hippie scene in San Francisco. The teens that lived there had no money or living.
Billy Landout and Emmett Grogan
The Diggers gave underpriveliged people free food at the Golden Gate Park everyday. Billy and Emmett at first did not know how they would make the stew, and then had an idea.
"We'll make a stew."
"What will we use to cook with? Cans? Garbage Cans?"
"No. Milk cans. They're steralized 'n durable 'n you can handle 'em easily."
"Death of a Hippie"
A parade by the Diggers to signify the death of the hippie, and the birth of a Free Man.
1966 - National Organization for Women (NOW) is established by powerful feminists, headed by Betty Friedan
Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Passed by Congress in 1972 and sent to states for ratification
1968 - The EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunities Committee) rules that sex-segregated help wanted ads in newspapers are illegal.
1964 - The Civil Rights Act bars discrimination in employment on the basis of race and sex
1963 - Congress passes the Equal Pay Act, making it illegal for employers to pay a woman less than what a man would receive for the same job
The Black Panthers, an aggressive civil rights group established to give African Americans equal rights by any means necessary, outlined their desires in the "Ten Point Plan"
The Ten Point Plan
1. WE WANT FREEDOM. WE WANT POWER TO DETERMINE THE DESTINY OF OUR BLACK AND OPPRESSED COMMUNITIES.
We believe that Black and oppressed people will not be free until we are able to determine our destinies in our own communities ourselves, by fully controlling all the institutions which exist in our communities.
2. WE WANT FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR OUR PEOPLE.
We believe that the federal government is responsible and obligated to give every person employment or a guaranteed income. We believe that if the American businessmen will not give full employment, then the technology and means of production should be taken from the businessmen and placed in the community so that the people of the community can organize and employ all of its people and give a high standard of living.
3. WE WANT AN END TO THE ROBBERY BY THE CAPITALISTS OF OUR BLACK AND OPPRESSED COMMUNITIES.
We believe that this racist government has robbed us and now we are demanding the overdue debt of forty acres and two mules. Forty acres and two mules were promised 100 years ago as restitution for slave labor and mass murder of Black people. We will accept the payment in currency which will be distributed to our many communities. The American racist has taken part in the slaughter of our fifty million Black people. Therefore, we feel this is a modest demand that we make.
4. WE WANT DECENT HOUSING, FIT FOR THE SHELTER OF HUMAN BEINGS.
We believe that if the landlords will not give decent housing to our Black and oppressed communities, then housing and the land should be made into cooperatives so that the people in our communities, with government aid, can build and make decent housing for the people.
5. WE WANT DECENT EDUCATION FOR OUR PEOPLE THAT EXPOSES THE TRUE NATURE OF THIS DECADENT AMERICAN SOCIETY. WE WANT EDUCATION THAT TEACHES US OUR TRUE HISTORY AND OUR ROLE IN THE PRESENT-DAY SOCIETY.
We believe in an educational system that will give to our people a knowledge of the self. If you do not have knowledge of yourself and your position in the society and in the world, then you will have little chance to know anything else.
6. WE WANT COMPLETELY FREE HEALTH CARE FOR All BLACK AND OPPRESSED PEOPLE.
We believe that the government must provide, free of charge, for the people, health facilities which will not only treat our illnesses, most of which have come about as a result of our oppression, but which will also develop preventive medical programs to guarantee our future survival. We believe that mass health education and research programs must be developed to give all Black and oppressed people access to advanced scientific and medical information, so we may provide our selves with proper medical attention and care.
7. WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO POLICE BRUTALITY AND MURDER OF BLACK PEOPLE, OTHER PEOPLE OF COLOR, All OPPRESSED PEOPLE INSIDE THE UNITED STATES.
We believe that the racist and fascist government of the United States uses its domestic enforcement agencies to carry out its program of oppression against black people, other people of color and poor people inside the united States. We believe it is our right, therefore, to defend ourselves against such armed forces and that all Black and oppressed people should be armed for self defense of our homes and communities against these fascist police forces.
8. WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO ALL WARS OF AGGRESSION.
We believe that the various conflicts which exist around the world stem directly from the aggressive desire of the United States ruling circle and government to force its domination upon the oppressed people of the world. We believe that if the United States government or its lackeys do not cease these aggressive wars it is the right of the people to defend themselves by any means necessary against their aggressors.
9. WE WANT FREEDOM FOR ALL BLACK AND OPPRESSED PEOPLE NOW HELD IN U. S. FEDERAL, STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND MILITARY PRISONS AND JAILS. WE WANT TRIALS BY A JURY OF PEERS FOR All PERSONS CHARGED WITH SO-CALLED CRIMES UNDER THE LAWS OF THIS COUNTRY.
We believe that the many Black and poor oppressed people now held in United States prisons and jails have not received fair and impartial trials under a racist and fascist judicial system and should be free from incarceration. We believe in the ultimate elimination of all wretched, inhuman penal institutions, because the masses of men and women imprisoned inside the United States or by the United States military are the victims of oppressive conditions which are the real cause of their imprisonment. We believe that when persons are brought to trial they must be guaranteed, by the United States, juries of their peers, attorneys of their choice and freedom from imprisonment while awaiting trial.
10. WE WANT LAND, BREAD, HOUSING, EDUCATION, CLOTHING, JUSTICE, PEACE AND PEOPLE'S COMMUNITY CONTROL OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY.
When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and, accordingly, all experience hath shown that mankind are most disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But, when a long train of abuses and usurpation, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security.
Let's see how closely you were paying attention...
1. Which of these women wrote "The Feminine Mystique", which closely analyzed the stereotype of the homemaker?
a. Katharine Hepburn
b. Betty Friedan
c. Shirley Chisolm
d. Alice Walker
2. The Black Panthers outlined their desires for equality in a document known as the "Ten ___ Plan"
3. In what year did the Woodstock music festival take place?
4. The name of the park that President Reagan ordered razed and fenced off was ___
a. Friend's Park
b. People's Park
c. Peace Park
d. College Park
5. This psychologist named ____ coined the catch phrase "Turn on, tune in, drop out".
a. Timothy Leary
b. Sigmund Freud
c. Carl Rogers
d. Frank Beech
6. The most productive way to hold a demonstration during the 1960s was to ___
a. block off public roads
b. secure a city permit
c. use violence
d. set up barbed wire
8. The San Francisco Diggers were a group founded in order to ___
a. feed less fortunate people for free
b. play rock and roll
c. perform violent protests
d. play video games
7. The National Voting Rights Act did what?
a. protected women from injustice in the workplace
b. abolished discriminatory voting practices
c. helped white Americans vote faster
d. prevented voter registration for African Americans
But, how about Australia?
In the 1960's, the modern Women's Liberation Movement in Australia started with small groups of women who got together and discussed ways of re-educating the women of Australia their rights. They decided on consciousness raising. They believed that if women were made aware of their lack of rights, they would do something about it.
During the 1950's and 60's, the mentality towards women was much the same as the pre-federation ideals. In 1969, the concerns of the Women's Liberation Movement were;
1. Women weren't getting equal pay for equal work of equal value.
2. Women couldn't make decisions about their own bodies i.e. the Pill and Abortion.
3. Women couldn't work in designated 'men only' profession areas.
4. Women were being sexually harassed or abused by 'superior' males.
5. There was a lot of discrimination in education. Women couldn't get into University.
6. Banks didn't loan to women if they were single.
The Women's Liberation Movement decided to reach the goals of equality in society through consciousness raising, lobbying or political pressure, lectures, pamphlets, protests and books like Damned Whores and God's Police by Dr. Anne Summers and The Female Eunuch by Germaine Greer.
The Women's Liberation Movement was successful in their attempt to gain equality in society. Because of them, women were receiving equal pay. In the 1950's and 60's women were struggling to get 75% of the male wage. In 'women only' professions such as teaching and nursing, women were only getting two thirds of the male wage. Women also received maternity and paternity leave. The introduction of the Pill and abortions saved many women. It was only until women were able to control their own fertility that they could match males in creating serious careers.
1962 was the first time there was union support of women's issues. It fought constantly with the Arbitration Commission for equal pay for women. This eventually happened in 1972 with the introduction of a minimum wage.
Under Prime Minister Gough Whitlam, there was now money to fund Women's health centres, childcare centres and training of childcare workers. The Widows Pension was also granted to women regardless of marital status.
"What about Australia?"
I hear you say!
Up until 1965, Aborigines were not able to vote,
Qld. was the last to allow this.
On 27 May 1967 a Federal referendum was held.
The sections of the Constitution under scrutiny were:
51. The Parliament shall, subject to this Constitution, have power to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of the Commonwealth with respect to:-
...(xxvi) The people of any race, other than the aboriginal people in any State, for whom it is necessary to make special laws.
127. In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives should not be counted.
Source:: Australian Archives, 2011 & Reconciliation Australia, 2011
Voting Rights Ammendment: http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/scripts/Imagine.asp
To what extent was the 1960s a decade of great social improvement?