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The Battles Of Saipan And Tarawa.
Transcript of The Battles Of Saipan And Tarawa.
The bombing at Pearl Harbor led the U.S.
to declare war on the Japanese Empire, and the constant attacks on U.S. territories forced the U.S. to go on the offense.
Julian C. Smith
- Born on September 11, 1885.
- Died on November 5, 1975.
- He was 58 years old during the Battle of Tarawa.
- In 1938, Julian C. Smith was Commanding Officer of the 5th Marine Division, then Commander of the FMF Training School in New River.
- Born on April 9, 1894
- Died November 20, 1943
- Commander of the 6th Yokosuka Special Naval Landing Force, which was in charge of defending the Tarawa Atoll specifically Betio Island.
- Reported KIA(Killed in Action) along with all his senior officers on the first day of the battle; he was shot by USN destroyers while making room in a bunker for wounded soldiers.
- "Pill Boxes" were small concrete or brick buildings which usually had small openings to fire weapons through.
- They had better firing and vision range then trenches and provided protection against bullets and small explosives such as hand grenades and molotovs, which trenches did not.
The Battles Of Saipan And Tarawa.
Operation Galvanic (Battle of Tarawa)
- U.S. attacked the Japanese stronghold
at the Gilbert Islands (Tarawa Atoll), especially on the
Island of Betio.
- U.S. troops numbered about 35,000.
- U.S. Marines at Tarawa were commanded by Julian C. Smith.
- Japanese troops numbered about 2,600
soldiers and 2,200 construction workers.
- The Japanese were defending the islands
because they were an important trade and
military position during WW2.
- Imperial Japan's defenders at Tarawa were commanded by Keiji Shibazaki.
"The 2nd Marine Division has been especially chosen by the High Command for the assault on Tarawa...what you do there will set a standard for all future operations in the central pacific area."
~Major General Julian C. Smith (Tarawa) November ,1943
Primary Source #1
- Operation Galvanic was the U.S.'s code name for the Battle of Tarawa.
- The U.S.'s original plan was to take over the Marianas Islands to set up forward air bases which would support operations in the Philippines and into Japan.
- To get to the beach, Marines had to wade through 700 meters of water and Japanese mortar explosions because the boats had gotten stuck on the reef at low tide.
3. Early Life (Outside Career)
- Graduated from University of Delaware.
- Joined the Marines in 1909.
- Graduated from Naval War College in 1917.
3. Early Life
- In 1921, after taking courses in navigation, he was put in command of 2 ships; 1 oiler ship and 1 survey ship(Scout).
- Graduate of the 43rd class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in 1915.
Primary Source #2
"A million men cannot take Tarawa in a hundred years."
~ Keiji Shibazaki
Casualties Of Tarawa
1. United States Casualties
⦁ Although the U.S. won the battle, heavy casualties were suffered by American troops.
⦁ About 3,000 were killed by Japanese gunfire and another 2,101 were severely injured.
2. Japanese Casualties
⦁ Japanese casualties were even greater; 4,690 of their 4,819 men were killed.
⦁ 17 soldiers and 129 laborers were the only survivors and all of them were captured.
Great Marianas Turkey Shoot
⦁ The Great Marianas Turkey Shoot got its name from the one-sided victory of the Battle of the Philippine Sea.
⦁ One sailor from the deck of one of the aircraft carriers reported that he saw the "American fleet's concentrated power knock plane after plane out of sky".
About the battle
⦁ Operation Forager was the code name for the Battle of Saipan.
⦁ United States wanted control of the Mariana Islands because they were Japan's main communications with their "South Sea Empire".
⦁ Saipan was Japan's main stronghold on the islands.
⦁ 16,525 United States soldiers were killed in the battle.
⦁ Japanese losses were over 29,000 soldiers.
⦁ The United States used the island for the first B-29 base in the Pacific.
⦁ The Banzai Charge was a tactic used by the Japanese when they were fighting a losing battle, to overrun their opponent by sheer number of people.
⦁ In this fighting style, the Japanese would rush their enemies in large groups with swords and rifles; this would usually work against enemies with bolt-action weapons or single-shot weapons.
⦁ When the Japanese used this tactic against the Americans in the Battle of Tarawa and Battle of Saipan, it failed because American machine guns and semi-auto rifles could fire fast enough to kill all the banzai chargers before they could reach the American soldiers.
Primary Source #4
Primary Source #3
⦁ The Saipan Suicides were a mass suicide event committed by the civilian living on Saipan.
⦁ Emperor Hirohito sent out an order to all the civilians to commit suicide before the Marines captured or killed them.
⦁ The Emperor promised every civilian who killed themselves an equal respect and honor in the afterlife to the soldiers who died in battle.
⦁ Because of Japanese traditions and the Emperor's orders, more then 1,000 civilians living on Saipan committed suicide; most of them jumped off the cliffs of Marpi Point.
Casualties many; Percentage of dead not known; Combat efficiency; we are winning.
- Colonel David M. Shoup (Tarawa, November 21, 1943)
"The water seemed never clear of tiny men.... They kept falling, falling, falling... singly, in groups, and in rows."
-An Unknown Marine Officer(Tarawa)
"Operation Forager." TheWorldAtWar. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb 2014. <http://worldatwar.net/article/forager/>.
"The Bloody Battle of Tarawa, 1943." EyeWitness To History. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb 2014. <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/tarawa.htm>.
"MAJOR GENERAL JULIAN C. SMITH, USMC." 2nd Marine Division Association. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb 2014. <http://www.2dmardiv.com/Major_General_Julian_C_Smith.html>.
"Battle of Saipan." Historynet. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb 2014. <http://www.historynet.com/battle-of-saipan>.
"Battle of Saipan 1944." History Learning Site. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb 2014. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/battle_saipan_1944.htm>.
"World War 2 Quotes." World War 2. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb 2014. <http://www.world-war-2.info/quotes/quotes3.php>.
"Gilbert Islands Campaign." World War II Database. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb 2014. <http://ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=72>.
"Famous Quotes." WorldWar-2.net. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb 2014. <http://www.worldwar-2.net/famous-quotes/famous-quotes-index.htm>.
What did Keiji say as a boast about the
defenses he had set up on Betio?
When was Julian C. Smith born?
What is a Pill Box?
When was Keiji Shibazaki killed and how?
How many Americans died in the Battle of
Tarawa; how many Japanese died?
Why did the U.S. lose so many soldiers in the Battle of Tarawa?
What was the purpose of the 2 battles?
(Tarawa & Saipan).
Why was Saipan island important to the
outcome of WW2?
What is a Banzai Charge?
What were the Saipan Suicides?
Why did the Banzai Charges at Tarawa and Saipan fail against the Marines? How did this effect the outcome of the battle?