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Death of the bee

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samantha white

on 24 November 2013

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Transcript of Death of the bee

BIODIVERSITY: To bee or not to bee?
What are the numbers?
Bee The Numbers

US decline from 5.9 million in 1947 to 2.4 million in 2008 (Grunewald, 2010).
Approximately 30% decline every year since (Wines, 2013).

Europe in 2005 11.5 million now approximately 5 million. Many European countries are now seeing a 30% decline per year (Shore, 2008).

Germany in 1998 1.2 million now approximately 600 thousand and seeing an almost 40% decline per year (Grunewald, 2010).

Canada’s numbers are very similar at 35% decline (Globe and Mail 2013).

Global Issue:
The US pollination industry contributes 20 billion dollars to their economy (Marks, 2005).

Cattle and other animals that we use for food are fed forages, pollinated by bees, and this makes up another 20 billion dollars of the US economy (Marks, 2005)

What does bee loss mean for us?

A greater demand for bees—the almond fields of California (Ellis, 2013)

Food prices will and have already increased (United States Department of Agriculture, 2013)

Eventually less of a variety of produce available (Ellis, 2013)

Bee Keeper
-Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans.

-Over 30 intact bee hives were found by archeologists dating back to early 9th century BCE

-7,000 beekeepers in Canada (Ontario 31% of total beekeepers)

-Canada exports half of its honey production

-While honey production and colony inventories increase, beekeepers are declining.

What is causing all this?
Contributing factors:

-Habitat loss and land use
-Pathogens and Parasites
-Invasive Plant and Animal Species
-Climate Change

All these factors are propelled by globalization

(Grünewald, 2010)
What can the nurse do?
Whats the issue?
Nutritional impact of Biodiversity




We can BEE the solution!!

1. Basic knowledge of environmental health concepts

2. Guide practice using
The Precautionary Principle

3. Evidence-based decision-making

4. Participate in research

5. Multidisciplinary action

6. Advocacy
(American Nurses Association, 2007)
Propolis - What is it?

-Term used to refer to the plant resins that bees collect and deposit in the honeycomb (Spivak, 2013).

-It is a sticky yellow material that the honey bees (apis mellifera) collect to protect the bee hive from any outside unwanted impurities. This process of wrapping propolis around the beehive can take up to thirteen hours to complete.

-Propolis A.K.A Russian penicillin, propolis wax, bee glue, bee putty

-Propolis is composed of essential oils and wax, pollen, amino acids, minerals, vitamins A, B complex, E and highly active bio-chemical substances known and bioflavonoid (Vit P), and phenols (Shruthi, 2012)

American Nurses Association (2007). ANA's Principles of Environmental Health for Nursing Practice with Implementation Strategies. Silver Spring, America: American Nurses Association.

Ellis, J. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. (2013). Colony collapse disorder (ccd) in honey bees (ENY-150). Retrieved from website: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN72000.pdf

Finstrom, M.S., Spivak, M. (2010). Propolis and bee health: the natural history and significance of resin use by honey bees, Apidolgie, 4: 295-311.

Goulson, D. Ontario Beekeepers Association, (2013).Financial times: There is no plan bee for when we run out of pollinators. Retrieved from website: http://www.ontariobee.com/inside-oba/news-and-updates/financial-times-there-is-no-plan-bee-for-when-we-runout-of-pollinators-1

Grunewald, B. (2010). Is pollination at risk? Current Threats to and conservation of Bees. GAIA, 19(1), 61-67. Retrieved from Ebscohost 09 November 2013

Kauri, V. & Waldie, P. (31 July 2013) No honey, more problems: A ‘catastrophic’ year for bee colonies The Globe and Mail Retrieved 15 November from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/technology/science/no-honey-more-problems-acatastrophic-year-for-bee-colonies/article13542705/

Lofty, M. (2006). Biological activity of bee propolis in health and disease. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention, 7.

Marks, R. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (2005). Native pollinators (34). Retrieved from website: http://plants.usda.gov/pollinators/Native_Pollinators.pdf

Shore, B. (20 November 2008). Why are Europe’s Bees Dying. BBC News. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7739798.stm

Shruthi, E., Suma, B.S. (2012). Health from the hive: potential uses of propolis in general health. International journal of clinical medicine, 3, 159-162.

Spivak, M. (2013). The Benefits of Propolis. University of Minnesota, 95:3.

United Nations. (2013). Hunger. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/briefingpapers/food/index.shtml

United States Department of Agriculture. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. (2013). Honey bees and colony collapse disorder. Retrieved from website: http://www.ars.usda.gov/News/docs.htm?docid=15572

Wines, M. (28 March 2013) Mystery Malady Kills More Bees, Heightening Worry on Farms. New York Times. Retrieved 09 November 2013 from

World Health Orgaization. World Health Organization, (2013).Biodiversity. Retrieved from website: http://www.who.int/globalchange/ecosystems/biodiversity/en/

Yukhananov, A. (2011, August 4). Eating healthy food costs more money in u.s. Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/04/us-food-costs-idUSTRE7734L620110804

What is it used for?
-Propolis has been found to have many medicinal and health benefits. Examples include anti-inflammatory and hypotensive agents, bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents (Lofty, 2006).

- The bio flavonoid chemical in propolis plays an important role in reducing an inflammatory response (Shruthi, 2012)

- This natural remedy has been used for many centuries dating as far back as the Greek civilization.

-Hippocrates used propolis for healing sores and ulcers (Shruthi, 2012)

What can society do?
We can Bee the difference:
1. Reconnect with the environment
2. Plant flowering plants
3. Diversify crops
4. Minimize bee transport
5. Eliminate pesticide use
6. Prevent global warming
Why is Biodiversity important?
World collapse? Could it be the result of the extinction of the Honey bee?!?

30% of the food consumed by human beings depends on the bee!

80% of crops produce for human consumption require pollination.
Colony Collapse Disorder (Grunewald, 2010).
Biodiversity is essential for global food production and nutrition

Access to a sufficient supply of nutritious varieties of food is a fundamental determinant of health.

Nutritional value are increased when there are multiple contributors, such as species, soil and crops

Food production and biodiversity can be limited through irrigation and use of fertilizer, plant protection (pesticides) and by using monocultures year after year

(WHO, 2013)

Impacts of Bee loss on Globalization
World Hunger and Poverty
Approximately 1 billion people in the world are living in hunger and 98% of these people live in developing countries

Many of these people simply do not have the income to purchase food for themselves and their families

A continuing decline in bees will make food even more difficult for these people to purchase and will have a negative affect on their quality of life and health status

(United Nations, 2013)

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