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Transcript of Amygdala
Straight to the hippocampus
Straight to the entorhinal cortex
Straight to the dorsomedial of the thalamus
How it sends information
The amygdala is the center for emotions, emotional behavior and motivation.
What is the Amygdala?
The amygdala is wired by genetics to respond to certain kinds of stimuli that have been dangerous to us. When this stimuli is encountered, behavioral, nervous system, and hormonal responses are expressed which help the organism cope with the danger.
The amygdala helps store memories and emotions so that the person will be able to recognize similar events in their future.
Perception of emotions
As well as controlling aggression.
Functions of the Amygdala
History of the Amygdala
During the 1930's scientists found that animals, specifically monkeys, with a damaged amygdala( and other close parts of the brain) showed a decreased sense of fear.
when the body feels threatened the amygdala is responsible for providing a response (fight or flight)
The amygdala response is automatic, you have no control. This is referred to as "amygdala hijacking".
The amygdala can cause people to react irrationally and even destructively and they have no choice.
The amygdala plays a part in those with anger issues, sometimes they can't help it they just act because the amygdala tells them they are in danger.
Williams, John. "The Amygdala: Definition, Role & Function." Education Portal. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2014. <http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-amygdala-definition-role-function.html#lesson>.
Wright, Anthony. "Limbic System: Amygdala (Section 4, Chapter 6) Neuroscience Online: An Electronic Textbook for the Neurosciences | Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy - The University of Texas Medical School at Houston." Limbic System: Amygdala (Section 4, Chapter 6) Neuroscience Online: An Electronic Textbook for the Neurosciences | Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy - The University of Texas Medical School at Houston. The University of Texas, n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2014. <http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s4/chapter06.html>.
Many anxiety disorders are linked to the amygdala
Strong emotional memories are stored in the central part of the amygdala
These emotions, mainly traumatic experiences, can be triggered by you're surroundings, which causes the amygdala to react
Most of the time people are unaware that something is triggering their anxiety, it's all subconscious, which is what makes it so hard to control
From the Greek word for Almond.
when anxiety is triggered, it can often lead to panic attacks
panic attacks are caused by an overactive amygdala
The triggering of the amygdala causes a chain reaction in the body which leads to the release of a chemical called epinephrine
epinephrine is associated with adrenaline
an overactive amygdala releases an excess amount of epinephrine, which causes the heart to beat faster, shaking and it becomes harder to breathe, this is a panic attack
Edwards, Scott P. "Help Us Improve Dana.org." The Amygdala: The Body's Alarm Circuit. The Dana Foundation, May 2005. Web. 04 Dec. 2014. <http://www.dana.org/Publications/Brainwork/Details.aspx?id=43615>.
When the amygdala receives stimulation, the emotions that become heightened are fear or anger.
Panic attacks are a recurrent episodes of terror that bring you to a sense of impending disaster.
The amygdala gives humans the gut feelings
damage to the amygdala causes people to lose sensitivity to emotions
it becomes hard for people to feel, their amygdala is misinterpreting emotional signals and can't tell the body how to react
there isn't really a distinction between sad and happy
people with a damaged amygdala can still experience emotion it's just harder
Center for emotions, emotional behavior & motivation
Destructive lesion: a disorder that leads to the damage or necrosis of an organ or tissue.
Destructive lesions like ablation in the amygdala cause an effect to the irritative lesions of the temporal lobe.
In animals, destructive lesions of the amygdala cause them to be tame. While in humans it causes the same effect of calmness
where calcium is deposited in to the amygdala, If the disease occurs early on in life then the person with the disease can't discriminate emotion in facial expressions.
Fear-Conditioning is a behavioral study that which the subjects of the test begin to predict aversive events. Its in the form of learning which an aversion stimulus like an electrical shock, is associated with a neutral context like a familiar object, and then that results in the expression of fear responses to the originally neutral object
Some emotion that is being linked to some perceptual experience goes to fear conditioning.
Much of what is known about emotions come from fear conditioning.
Train Your Amygdala
Sometimes the amygdala causes us to react to fear in ways that we don't want to react
In order to get the reaction to fear that we want, we must tame our amygdala
the Navy Seals developed a four step process to train your amygdala to get the reaction you want
"Fear Conditioning." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Nov. 2014. Web. 09 Dec. 2014.
"Limbic System: Amygdala (Section 4, Chapter 6) Neuroscience Online: An Electronic Textbook for the Neurosciences | Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy - The University of Texas Medical School at Houston." Limbic System: Amygdala (Section 4, Chapter 6) Neuroscience Online: An Electronic Textbook for the Neurosciences | Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy - The University of Texas Medical School at Houston. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2014.
The Four Step Process
"Destructive Lesion." TheFreeDictionary.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2014
goal setting assists the frontal lobes
the frontal lobes are in charge of planning and organization
goal setting allows there to be organization even in chaos because the brain is focused on one thing and this keeps the amygdala calm
running the same image through your mind helps it come more naturally when you actually have to do it since you already know what you have to do
this helps organize your thoughts
positive words help override the amygdala response
this is centered around breathing
deliberately breathing slow helps you stay in control and helps avoid some of the effects of panic
"Anxiety Disorders." NIMH RSS. Logo for USA.gov: Government Made Easy. The National
Institute of Mental Health, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2014.
The Brain. The History Channel, 2012. YouTube. YouTube, 15 Feb. 2012. Web. 09 Dec. 2014.
Horowitz, Shel. "Emotional Intelligence - Stop Amygdala Hijackings." Articles. University of
Massachusetts Amherst, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2014.
McLeod, Saul. "B.F. Skinner | Operant Conditioning." Simply Psychology. Simply Psychology,
2007. Web. 09 Dec. 2014.
Phelps, E. "Human Emotion and Memory: Interactions of the Amygdala and Hippocampal
Complex." Current Opinion in Neurobiology 14.2 (2004): 198-202. Web. 9 Dec. 2014.
Weber, Ellen. "Tame Your Amygdala." – Brain Leaders and Learners. Neuro Discoveries, 24 Sept.
2008. Web. 09 Dec. 2014.
Wright, Anthony. "Neuroscience Online: An Electronic Textbook for the Neurosciences." Limbic
System: Amygdala (Section 4, Chapter 6). The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth)., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2014.
New technology has allowed for breakthroughs in research
Using fMRI (functional
magnetic resonance imaging) we can see how the amygdala reacts when stimulated
Subjects are stimulated both positively and negatively to see the difference in response from the amygdala
Not only is the amygdala involved, but also the frontal lobes and hippocampus
A recent study using fMRI, showed that greater left amygdala pathology predicted both worse subsequent memory for the emotional words and less activity in the left hippocampus.