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Animal Testing

MGT301A with Nathalie Hudson
by

Ella Prowse

on 6 November 2016

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Transcript of Animal Testing

BACKGROUND OF ANIMAL TESTING

Personal Opinion
ETHICAL BRANDING & RECOMMENDATIONS
Impact on Stakeholders



history of animal testing
SOCIETAL PERCEPTION OF ANIMAL TESTING
Animal testing for medical research
Societal Perception of Animal Testing
COMPANIES THAT USE ANIMAL TESTING TODAY
avon

animal testing for cosmetics
Laws and regulations
laws and regulations
history of animal testing
The Ethical Dilemma of
by Ella Prowse
MGT301A - Ethics & Sustainability
Andrew Collinge
Anna Sui
Aramis
Aveeno
Avon*
Band-Aid
Biotherm
Bobbi Brown
Bonjela
Braun
Cacharel
Cashmere Bouquet
Chapstick
Clairol
Clean & Clear
Clearasil
Clinicare
Clinique
Colgate
Covergirl*
Crest
Decore

Lancome
Lemsip
Listerine
L'Occitane*
L'Oreal*
Lux
Lynx
MAC
Mary Kay*
Max Factor
Maybelline
Michael Kors
Missoni
Mum
Nair
Neutrogena
Nice 'n Easy
Nurofen
Olay
Old Spice
Optrex
Oral B
Palmolive
Pantene
Pearl Drops
Pears
Pert
Plax
Ponds
PPS
Radox
Ralph Lauren
Reach
Redken
Revlon
Rexona
Rogaine
Sanex
Saturn
Savlon
Scholl
Sensodyne
Shiseido
Shu Uemura
Simple
SK-II
Speed Stick
St Ives
Stayfree
Steradent
Strepsils
Tampax
Tom Ford
Tommy Hilfiger
Tony & Guy
TREsemme
Vaseline
Veet
Venus
Vicks
Vidal Sasson
Viktor & Rolf
V05
Waxeeze
Wella
Wella Balsam




• It has contributed to many life-saving cures
and treatments.
• It improves human health.
• It ensures the safety of drugs and chemicals.
• There is no adequate alternative to testing on
a living, whole-body system.
• Animals themselves benefit from the results
of testing.
• It is highly regulated to protect animals
from mistreatment.
• Animals often make better research subjects
than humans because of their short life cycle.

ARGUMENTS FOR:
• It is cruel and inhumane.
• Alternative methods now exist that can
replace the need for animals.
• It does not reliably predict results in humans.
• Drugs that pass animal testing are not
necessarily safe.
• It is very expensive compared to alternate
methods.
• Majority of experiments involving animals are
flawed.
• Failed or flawed tests mean the animals
suffered in vain.

ARGUMENTS AGAINST:
(Murnaghan. 2014c, ProCon.org. 2014)
Penicillin
Blood Transfusion
Tuberculosis
Macular Degeneration
Asthma
Meningitis
Kidney Transplants
Breast Cancer
Parkinson’s Disease
Insulin
Childhood Leukemia

Myeloid Leukemia
Lung Cancer
Heart Disease
Stroke
HIV/AIDS
Diabetes
Hepatitis C
Birth Defects
Epilepsy
Spinal Cord Injuries
Cystic Fibrosis

(Americans for Medical Progress. n.d., Parry. 2005)
BREAST CANCER
HIV / AIDS
BLOOD TRANSFUSION
MEDICAL DISCOVERIES &
DISEASES ALLEVIATED
These videos present animal testing in research centers in a different light, taking the ethical treatment of animals to the opposing extremes.
300BC

Aristotle tested
medical procedures on animals.
Stephen Hales and Luigi Galvani proved scientific theories of animation caused by electricity, respiration as combustion and blood pressure theories.
Ibn Zuhr was able theorise about the human blood circulatory system.
Robert Boyle theorised that living beings needed air to live.
1242
1660
1700s
Louis Pasteur used sheep and anthrax to prove the theory that germs were harmful and cause illness.
1880
Great Britain passed the Cruelty to Animals Act in 1876.
1800s
Emil von Behring developed an immunisation for diphtheria.
1901
Edgar Adrian proved the way the brain sends signals for communication.
Frederick Banting developed a treatment for diabetes.
Corwin Hinshaw found antibodies that could cure tuberculosis.
Anaesthesia was developed.
Jonas Salk developed a polio vaccine.
Scientists used dogs to attempt the replacing of a heart valve.
John Cade developed a treatment for depression.
Dolly the sheep was the first cloned animal.
1920
1921
1940s
1950s
1965
1968
1970s
1996
(Soft Schools. n.d.)
This is the affect of thalidomide, a drug that was never tested on animals, used by pregnant women to prevent morning sickness. More than 10,000 children were born with malformations or missing limbs.
what does cosmetics testing involve?
A rabbit undergoing an eye irritation test (Wikipedia.com. 2014)
SKIN SENSITISATION
SKIN IRRITATION
EYE IRRITATION
ACUTE TOXICITY
Substances are applied on the surface or injected into shaved skin to test if a chemical will cause an allergic reaction.
A chemical is placed on a shaved patch of skin to assess the potential of the substance to cause irreversible damage.
A substance is placed in one eye, with the other eye serving as a control. The level of irritation to the eyes is scored by observation of the cornea, conjunctiva and iris.
The danger of a chemical is determined by poisoning large numbers of animals in Lethal Dose tests, which are conducted until at least one half of the test animals die. Chemicals are administered by mouth, skin or inhalation.
(American Anti-Vivisection Society. 2014)
72% of survey respondents stated that they believe animal testing for cosmetic products is
UNETHICAL
(Committee for Responsible Medicine. 2011)
LEAPING
BUNNY
(PETA) CARING
CONSUMER
CHOOSE
CRUELTY FREE
Products and their individual ingredients must not have been tested on animals since the deadline for compliance declared by the manufacturer. The use of substances supplied by third-party companies who test on animals or commission such tests is also not permitted.
A company must confirm that it neither conducts nor commissions animal testing of any cosmetics or of ingredients used in formulations of such products. It must also require that manufacturers of any finished product it sells or distributes does not conduct or commission animal testing at any point.

A manufacturer must either have never tested its products or their ingredients on animals or have not done so within a period of five years of the date of application for accreditation. This includes tests performed by someone else on behalf of the manufacturer.
Disprin
Dolce & Gabbana
Donna Karan
Dove
Dufour
Durex
Elizabeth Arden
Estee Lauder*
Eulactol
Fruitrience
Garnier
Gillette
Giorgio Armani
Gucci Fragrances
Head & Shoulders
Herbal Essences
Hugo Boss
Impulse
Johnson & Johnson
Jurlique*
Kiehl's
Lacoste
(Animals Australia. 2013)
HOW ARE COMPANIES ABLE TO ADVERTISE AS CRUELTY-FREE WHEN THEY ARE NOT?
(Humane Society International. 2014)
REDUCTION
REFINEMENT
REPLACEMENT
Reducing the number of animals used in experiments by:
• Improving experimental techniques
• Improving techniques of data analysis
• Sharing information with other researchers

Refining the experiment or the way the animals are cared for so as to reduce their suffering by:
• Using less invasive techniques
• Providing better medical care and living conditions

Replacing experiments on animals with alternative techniques such as:
• Experimenting on cell cultures instead of whole animals
• Using computer models or epidemiological studies
• Studying human volunteers
(Scutti. 2013)
AVON sTAKeholders
AVON STAKEHOLDERS
AVON STAKEHOLDERS
AVON STAKEHOLDERS
ETHICAL BRANDING AND CORPORATE REPUTATION
THE FUTURE of animal testing
RECOMMENDATIONS for Legislation
SUMMARY
RECOMMENDATIONS for businesses
animal testing for cosmetics
Animal Testing for Medical research
references
CRUELTY-FREE COSMETICS BRANDS
rEFERENCES
The Advertising Standards Authority was alerted to this statement on Avon’s UK website:



However, the global or corporate version of its website plainly contradicted the statement, even detailing how many of its products are tested on animals:




"While this equates to under twenty-seven lotions and potions, the number of animal tests could run into thousands. Given each product or ingredient could be tested for about 15 different types of toxicity, and just one of those tests can involve poisoning and killing over 1,000 animals, they must be causing a lot of unnecessary animal suffering."

AVON DOES NOT TEST PRODUCTS OR INGREDIENTS ON ANIMALS, NOR DO WE REQUEST OTHER DO SO ON OUR BEHALF.
AVON SELLS APPROXIMATELY 9,000 DIFFERENT PRODUCTS IN OVER 100 COUNTRIES AND IN 2011, UNDER 0.3% OF THESE WERE TESTED ON ANIMALS.
(McCrae. 2012)
- Dr Dan Lyons, of the animal welfare group Uncaged
SHAREHOLDERS
EMPLOYEES
CUSTOMERS
PETA
GOVERNMENTS
TEST ANIMALS ARE STAKEHOLDERS, TOO!
STAKEHOLDERS
are people, groups or organisations that have interest or concern in an organisation. They can be affected by an organisation's actions, objectives and policies.
(Business Dictionary. 2014)
IT TAKES MANY GOOD DEEDS TO BUILD A GOOD REPUTATION AND ONLY ONE BAD ONE TO LOSE IT.
- Benjamin Franklin
Profits dropped 8% at the end of 2012.
(Pitman. 2013)
Consumers are no longer able to trust the brand.
Were enraged to find they had spent years advocating for an organisation under false pretenses.
Felt deceived and misinformed.
AUSTRALIA
BRAZIL
CANADA
CHINA
JAPAN
NEW ZEALAND
RUSSIA
SOUTH KOREA
TAIWAN
UNITED STATES
INDIA
Petitioning the government to introduce a national ban on cosmetics animal testing.
São Paulo cosmetics animal testing ban in January 2014; national ban under discussion.
Working with politicians to amend Canada’s Food and Drugs Act to ban animal testing for cosmetics.
Regulations changing to end animal testing requirements for cosmetics manufactured in China.
National cosmetics animal testing ban in June 2013, and an import ban effective November 2014.
Initiated a high-level dialogue with political, regulatory and corporate stakeholders toward a national testing ban.
Pressing for a cosmetics animal testing ban as part of ongoing revisions to the Animal Welfare Act.
Government acceptance of non-animal test methods following a practical training course for regulators.
$155 million government commitment to build national alternative testing center.
Working with politicians on national legislation to end animal testing for cosmetics.
Leading efforts to support federal legislation that will phase-out animal testing and prohibit the import of animal-tested cosmetics.
(Humane Society International. 2014)
Animal testing has resulted in many groundbreaking medical discoveries.
Animal testing for cosmetics products is viewed by society as unethical, as it is unnecessary and does nothing for the greater good of mankind.
Cosmetics brands are able to mislead consumers with false claims and logos portraying the brand to be cruelty-free.
All stakeholders suffer as a result of unethical business practice.
Ethical brands must maintain their standards if they wish to maintain their corporate reputation.
The future of animal testing appears bright, with many countries taking action on the issue.
New legislation should look to impose stricter regulation on misleading marketing of cruelty-free products.
(Newton. 2013)
SHAREHOLDERS
EMPLOYEES
CUSTOMERS
COMMUNITIES
GOVERNMENTS
ENVIRONMENT
SUPPLIERS
NGOs
COMPANIES MUST USE A SPECIFIED AMOUNT OF
OLD RESEARCH
ONLY ALLOW THE THREE REPUTABLE CRUELTY-FREE LOGOS
INTRODUCE A 'TESTED ON ANIMALS' LOGO TO ALL COSMETIC PRODUCTS
ENFORCE HARSHER PENALTIES FOR MISLEADING MARKETING
Prevent companies from needlessly testing new ingredients when ingredients that are known and have been proven safe for human use are available.
Do not allow for companies to use their own ‘cruelty-free’ logo design, as these are often false and misleading.
Companies that use animal testing should be made to state so on their products to ensure consumers can make an informed purchase decision.
An organisation seen to be using ethical branding in the promotion of a product that is deemed to be false and misleading should receive much harsher penalties.
ALWAYS MEET MARKET DEMANDS
Businesses must listen to their consumers and meet the needs of their market if they wish to be successful.
BE TRANSPARENT
If an organisation feels the need to mislead consumers or hide the reality of their business practices, it should be a sign that this practice is wrong.
NEVER ALLOW PROFITS TO COMPROMISE ETHICS
ALWAYS CONSIDER THE TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE
Cosmetics companies should not enter the Chinese market until they have revised their laws for compulsory animal testing.
Considering societal, economic and environmental needs simultaneously will help to ensure that the ethical standpoint of the organisation remains intact.
UNNECESSARY SUFFERING IS NEVER JUSTIFIED
Faced a class action lawsuit seeking more than $100 million in punitive and compensatory damages.
(Dunne. 2013)
Risk of losing their current market share as a result of product bans in countries where animal testing is illegal.
Experienced personal criticism from the public as a result of the company's actions.
Unethical behavior leads to a drop in employee retention.
Many employees felt the need to leave the company.
Avon will now struggle to retain existing customers or attract new ones.
Resulted in customer boycotts of Avon products, with customers choosing to purchase from competitors.
Still chose to support Avon after their discovery, but Avon continued to lie about their cruelty-free stance.
Abandoned the organisation and informed the public.
Chinese government was forced to reconsider it's laws that make animal testing mandatory.
Avon's case brought the issue of animal testing to governments around the world.
Other cosmetics businesses announced their opposition, refusing to enter the Chinese market, negatively impacting the Chinese economy.
UTILITARIAN
APPROACH
in that an ethical decision is one that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
(Laysi. 2012, p.150)
BUSINESSES THAT MISLEAD CONSUMERS MUST BE PUNISHED
Avon portrayed themselves as an ethical brand, advertising their commitment to animal welfare by being the first large cosmetics company to ban animal testing. This false advertising severely damaged their corporate reputation.
(Elephant in the Room. 2014)
(Humane Society of the United States. 2013)
(Americans for Medical Progress. 2013)
(Choice. 2013)
We must take a
American Anti-Vivisection Society. 2014.
Testing
. Available: http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/cosmetic_testing/tips/common_cosmetics_tests_animals.html (accessed 10.12.14)
Americans for Medical Progress. n.d.
Animal Research Means Medical Progress.
Available: http://www.amprogress.org/animal-research-benefits
http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/animal-generates-new-treatments-45057 (accessed 10.12.14)
Animals Australia. 2013.
Which Companies and Brands Still Allow Testing on Animals?
Available: http://www.animalsaustralia.org/features/animal-testing-list.php (accessed 09.12.14)
Animals Australia. n.d.
Animal Experimentation Fact Sheet.
Available: http://www.animalsaustralia.org/factsheets/animal_experimentation.php#toc5 (accessed 10.12.14)
Animal Ethics Infolink. n.d.
Legislation
. A NSW Department of Primary Industries and Animal Research Review Panel Initiative. Available: http://www.animalethics.org.au/legislation (accessed 10.12.14)
Business Dictionary. 2014.
Stakeholder Definition
. Available: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/stakeholder.html (accessed 10.12.14)
Committee for Responsible Medicine. 2011.
More Than a Makeup Trend: New Survey Shows 72 Percent of Americans Oppose Testing Cosmetics Products on Animals
. Available: http://pcrm.org/research/animaltestalt/cosmetics/americans-oppose-testing-cosmetics-on-animals (accessed 10.12.14)
Cook, K. 2006.
Stand Up for Science
. Pro-Test. Available: http://www.pro-test.org.uk/2006/03/facts-about-animal-research.html (accessed 10.12.14)

DoSomething.org. n.d.
11 Facts About Animal Testing
. Available: https://www.dosomething.org/facts/11-facts-about-animal-testing (accessed 09.12.14)
Dunne, D. 2013.
Animal Rights Plaintiffs Drop Class Action Against Avon
. Association of Corporate Counsel. Available: http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=b9a9bbb5-f1b8-4a84-855d-75467310e802 (accessed 12.12.14)
Elephant in the Room. 2014.
How To Know If It’s Cruelty Free
. Available: http://www.elephant-room.org/How_to_Know_Cruelty_Free (accessed 10.12.14)
Ethics Resource Center. 2011.
Building a Corporate Reputation of Integrity.
Available: http://www.ethics.org/files/u5/integrity.pdf (accessed 10.12.14)
Hajar, R. 2011.
Animal Testing and Medicine
. Heart Views. Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123518/ (accessed 09.12.14)
Humane Research Australia. 2013.
Thought Cosmetic Testing Was a Thing of the Past?
Think Again! Available: http://www.humaneresearch.org.au/campaigns/choosingcrueltyfree (accessed 10.12.14)
Humane Society International. 2014.
Cruelty-Free Companies Urge Australian Government to Ban Cosmetics Animal Testing
. Available: https://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=15&ved=0CEMQFjAEOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.humaneresearch.org.au%2F_literature_173510%2FCruelty-Free_Companies_Urge_Australian_Government_to_Ban_Cosmetics_Animal_Testing&ei=gK6IVLnhF4X18QWA8IDAAQ&usg=AFQjCNE1hcvXSxcAz8P3zSklvSreLnwNyw&sig2=DbJiE878Q8bmKqY7TS1ESQ&bvm=bv.81456516,d.dGY&cad=rja (accessed 10.12.14)
Humane Society International. n.d.
Get Lippy About Cosmetic Animal Testing in Australia and the World!
Available: http://www.humaneresearch.org.au/bcf/Guide%20to%20Supporters%20for%20Labor%20Consultation.pdf (accessed 10.12.14)

Katsnelson, A. 2013.
Will We Ever Eliminate Animal Experimentation?
CCS. Available: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20130609-will-we-ever-end-animal-testing (accessed 10.12.14)
Laysi, N. 2012.
Business Ethics and the Legal Environment of Business.
Available: http://www.scribd.com/doc/102236288/Business-Ethics-and-Legal-Environment#force_seo (accessed 12.12.14)
Macrae, F. 2012.
Avon Withdraws Animal Test Claims From Website After Complaints
. Daily Mail. Available: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2110787/Avon-withdraws-animal-test-claims-website-complaints.html (accessed 10.12.14)
Melella, L. 2012.
PETA Says No to China’s Animal Testing
. Global Animal. Available: http://www.globalanimal.org/2012/11/16/peta-says-no-to-chinas-animal-testing/ (accessed 10.12.14)
Mother Nature Network. 2012.
Avon, Estee Lauder, Mary Kay Under Fire for Animal Testing.
Forbes. Available: http://www.forbes.com/sites/eco-nomics/2012/02/20/avon-estee-lauder-mary-kay-under-fire-for-animal-testing/ (accessed 10.12.14)
Murnaghan, I. 2014a.
Animal Testing in Australia
. About Animal Testing. Available: http://www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/animal-testing-australia.html (accessed 10.12.14)
Murnaghan, I. 2014b.
Controversy of Animal Testing
. Available: http://www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/controversy-of-animal-testing.html (accessed 10.12.14)
Murnaghan, I. 2014c.
Using Animals for Testing: Pros Versus Cons.
About Animal Testing. Available: http://www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/using-animals-testing-pros-versus-cons.html (accessed 10.12.14)
News.com.au. 2013.
Top Cosmetics Brands ‘Lying to Customers About Animal Testing’.
Available: http://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/fashion/top-cosmetics-brands-lying-to-customers-about-animal-testing/story-fneszwgd-1226635671839 (accessed 09.12.14)

Newton, P. 2013.
Is Your Lipstick Really Cruelty-Free? Major Brands Accused of Misleading Consumers.
Available: https://au.lifestyle.yahoo.com/beauty/trends/article/-/17028995/Consumers-misled-by%20–major-brands-on-animal-testing/ (accessed 10.12.14)
Parry, V. 2005.
Medical Benefits.
Speaking of Research. Available: http://speakingofresearch.com/facts/medical-benefits/ (accessed 10.12.14)
PETA. 2014.
The Dirty Dozen: 12 Worst CEOs for Animals in Laboratories.
Available: http://www.peta.org/features/dirty-dozen-12-worst-ceos/ (accessed 10.12.14)
Pitman, S. 2013.
Avon Stakeholder Refers to Business as ‘a Mess’.
Cosmetics Design. Available: http://www.cosmeticsdesign.com/Business-Financial/Avon-stake-holder-refers-to-business-as-a-mess (accessed 10.12.14)
ProCon.org. 2014.
Should Animals Be Used for Scientific or Commercial Testing?
Available: http://animal-testing.procon.org (accessed 09.12.14)
RSPCA. 2014.
Why are Animals Stuff Used to Test the Safety of Cosmetics?
Available: http://kb.rspca.org.au/Why-are-animals-still-used-to-test-the-safety-of-cosmetics_607.html (accessed 11.12.14)
Scutti, S. 2013.
Animal Testing: A Long, Unpretty History.
Medical Daily. Available: http://www.medicaldaily.com/animal-testing-long-unpretty-history-247217 (accessed 09.12.14)
Soft Schools. n.d.
History of Animal Testing Timeline
. Available: http://www.softschools.com/timelines/history_of_animal_testing_timeline/266/ (accessed 10.12.14)
Yeomans, M. 2012.
Avon as Transparent as a “Black Blanket”, says PETA VP in Response to Misleading China Animal Testing Policy. Cosmetics Design.
Available: http://www.cosmeticsdesign-asia.com/Regulation-Safety/Avon-as-transparent-as-a-black-blanket-says-PETA-VP-in-response-to-misleading-China-animal-testing-policy (accessed 12.12.14)

(Wikipedia.com. 2014)
(Torres. 2009)
(Hicks. 2012)
(Abi. 2012)
(Schaub. 2009)
(PETA. 2014)
Examples of unreliable cruelty-free logos.
(Choice. 2013.)
The Triple Bottom Line (RTKL. n.d.)
Advertisement for a Pro-Testing Campaign (Advantage Business Media. 2011)
Full transcript