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Newton's Laws of Motion

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joshua lopes

on 29 October 2013

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Transcript of Newton's Laws of Motion

Life is in
Newton
Motion.
The bodies in motion could be large objects, such as orbiting moons or planets, or they could be ordinary objects on Earth's surface, such as moving vehicles or speeding bullets. Even bodies at rest are fair game.
Motion.
Student misconceptions in physics would decrease as a result of varied and multiple exposures to strategies and lesson plans implemented during the Unit on Newton and Motion.
The Setup
The data became very difficult to process.
By Joshua Lopes
November 28, 2012
Sir Isaac Newton:
By Joshua Lopes
April 1, 2013
Everything is Affected by Motion.
you are here.
Motion.
Findings of the Literature Review
Findings of the Literature Review
Helping students to become better problems solvers means that instructors must continue to focus on factors such as conceptual understanding, logical reasoning abilities, and the nature of scientific models and how they relate to the natural world, as well as students preconceptions and beliefs about the nature of knowledge in physics (Heron & Meltzer, 2005).
Teachers at all levels teach the
material differently
Newton's
Most Of What We Know About Motion
Can Be Credited to One Man:
Much of Our Understanding Of Motion
Comes From Newton' Laws of Motion
(but not for long)
And His
Three
Laws of
(but not for long.)
Nothing Is Ever Completely Still.
Everything is in Motion.
We are all Moving.
Sir Isaac
The Prediction

75% of students (12) would choose answers that represent typical misconceptions on at least 40% of the multiple choice questions.
The Pre-Test Prediction
Less than 18 correct answers on the 30 questions identifying one or more misconceptions.
On some questions, only specific answers were deemed beforehand to be choices that represented typical misconceptions.
The evidence of this improvement would be gauged by the results of a pre-test and post-test given before and after the unit.
At least 80% (13) of students would answer at least 75% of the misconceptions questions correctly.
The Post-test Prediction
At least 23 correct answers on the 30 questions dealing with misconceptions
The Setup
The Sample ?
Two classes had the pre-test returned prior to having scores recorded. ONLY one class was scored for both.
Data for pre-test was from the worst of the three
All my IEP and behavioral problem students
Of the one class who had both pre-tests and post-tests, only 16 out of 23 students completed both
7 Girls & 9 Boys
One on IEP, missed 38 days of school, and failed the class.
The purpose of this Capstone Project is to understand what it is about the nature of Sir Isaac Newton’s Three Laws of Motion that generates so much confusion and misunderstanding among students.
Effectively implement the findings from my research:
make the material accessible to students
help students identify & correct misconceptions
Statement of Goals
Understanding Newton and his three laws of motion is part of understanding the nature and complexities associated with teaching physics concepts.
I was either going to introduce, reinforce, or correct student’s epistemological beliefs about the nature of the physical world.
Many students have naïve conceptions of how the world operates.
His Three
Laws of Motion
&
Common
Misconceptions
Three Science Classes
Law 3:
For every
action,
there is
an equal
and
opposite
reaction.
Law 1: Every object
persists in its state of rest
or uniform motion in a straight
line unless it is compelled to change
that state by forces impressed on it.
Law 2: Force is equal to the change in
momentum per change in time. For a constant
mass, force equals mass times acceleration. F = M x A
Newton’s three laws form the
foundation of what is known as
classical mechanics, or the science
concerned with the motion
of bodies being acted
upon by forces.
Newton’s Laws of Motion
*Motion is the Force Behind Everything.*
"His laws are beautiful. Breathtakingly simple and incredibly powerful at the same time. They explain so much and the range of phenomena they clarify is mind boggling.
-Walter Lewin
“He looked on the whole universe and all that is in it as a riddle, as a secret which could be read by applying pure thought to certain evidence, certain mystic clues which God had laid about the world to allow a sort of philosopher’s treasure hunt to the esoteric brotherhood” - Lord Keynes
“I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.” -Isaac Newton
Track student performance and evaluate the results
The problem lies in the inability of students to distinguish between physical and everyday definitions of concepts, and the extent to which students believe they can trust physics to explain everyday experiences (Ishimoto, 2009).
Findings of the Literature Review
Physics is about building mental maps that allow us to make sense of the world. We must make maps that both map the way things look and happen in our world as well as develop ways that we can think about them simply (Reddish, 1999).
This confuses the learner who “returns” to physics in upper levels of learning
Often only looking at the subject with micro-environment in mind.
Student knowledge is often fragmented and context-dependent;
recall/answers are often focused on surface features and irrelevant
details rather than physics concepts
The test was 30 multiple choice questions, chosen specifically because they dealt with common misconceptions
Having one shot at the end of the year
proved to be the most difficult obstacle.
At least 5 end of year meetings that pulled me out of classes and lessons
Having substitute give post-test undermined the results.
Student engagement was less than acceptable.
The year was over before I was able to see results.
The Reflection
The data became very difficult to process.

Identify preconception: “faulty knowledge.”
Engaging/hands-on approach
Search for simplest, consistent, rational argument to explain similar effects seen in different experiences
Increase self-confidence
Student & Teacher
Implementation - Course of Action
12 lesson plans implemented over the course of 7 weeks:
Implementation
Describing Motion
Calculating Speed
Describing Velocity
Racing Cars
Graphing Motion
Acceleration
The Action
The Activities were a lot of fun
hands-on learning is the way to go
The misconception questions were awesome.
The end of the year was difficult
classroom management
student attention and focus
The Nature of Force
Newton’s First & Second Law
Newton Bananas
Friction & Gravity
Newton’s Third Law
Newton Scooters
7 N
3.5 N
1 N
2 N
4 N
4 N
3 N
5 N
4 N
2 N
4 N
2 N
3 N
5 N
3 N
6 N
7 N
6 N
5 N
3N
Unbalanced Force: This can cause an object to start moving, stop moving, or change direction
Unbalanced Forces
Implementation -
Student slide Show
Balanced Forces: Equal forces acting on one object in opposite directions
Balanced Forces
The Aftermath
Pre & Post-Test Data
Misconception Questions
Newton’s Laws – Why Research This Topic?
outlier?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Pre & Post-Test Data
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Class Rank-Pre & Post-Test Data
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Girls Pre & Post-Test Data
Boys Pre & Post-Test Data
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
The lessons may not have been the most effective for accomplishing the goal of overcoming misconceptions
Prediction was that 12 would fall below yellow line & 13 above the red line.
Results were that 9 were below the yellow line (better) & only 5 were above the red line (worse).
Post-Test Average of 65%
Three class avg of 62%
What The Numbers Mean:
Other teacher had a 3 class average of 75%.
Students really do struggle with physics misconception.
I have a long way to go (grow ).
The Slide That Isn't in the Binder...
This was a terrible time of year to implement!
I was teaching a subject I probably had no business teaching!
I had some really tough students to manage in the classroom. I learned a lot but I got really beat up too.
Having the sub give post-test really &$%#@^ me.
Numbers also mean that I need to change up my approach to teaching physics in the future.
There is still a lot for me to learn.
Newton's Laws - Why Research This Topic?
Conclusions - Cont.
I went too far into the "physics" side of the lessons for this age.
I am going to be a much better teacher of physics next year.
This could be a strength if I learn from this first year and do a better job of addressing misconceptions next time.
Questions?

Comments?
sound file. right click and cut to stop looping
.
Full transcript