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Transcript of Cell Biology
Structure of the cell membrane
Lipids, phospholipid bilayer (self assembled) - hydrophobic heads / hydrophilic tails, glycolipids
Carbohydrates, e.g. glycoproteins
Protein, 50% of the membrane, receptors such as antigens, surface recognition, signalling, enzymatic activity, transmembrane transportation, cell-cell contact
The cell membrane is a dynamic structure responsible for the communication of the cell to the 'outside' and the passive or active transfer of molecules inside/outside the cell
Observable under the electron microscope
Composed of macromolecules, phospholipids, glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteins
Functions of the cell membrane
separation of the inside of the cell from the outside
ion conductivity,e.g., K+, H+
works as a selective filter: passive osmosis and diffusion
transmembrane protein channels and transporters
endo-cytosis & exo-cytosis
attachment for several extracellular structures, e.g., cell wall
Gram-negative bacteria - have both a plasma membrane and an outer membrane separated by a periplasmic space
structural, e.g., collagens
hormones, e.g., FSH, HCG
immunological, e.g., immunoglobulins
cell attachment recognition site, e.g., sperm-oocyte, virus-cell
and many more!
The Glycocalyx is a polysaccharide layer found in the cardiovascular system and the villi of the digestive tract.
Disruption of the glycocalyx is linked to various disorders.
Bacterial cells possess a glycocalyx called a capsule or slime layer including those in the human digestive tract