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SOAN101 GENDER F14
Transcript of SOAN101 GENDER F14
Universal way of organizing social roles
but matters in different ways and to different degrees between cultures
Why Study Gender?
Anthropology (and other disciplines) had been androcentric historically
What is the difference between sex & gender?
Sex- biological differences (X/Y chromosomes, hormones, secondary sexual characteristics)
Gender- culturally & historically constructed norms, values, & behaviors considered appropriate for each sex.
Mostly, recognize a two sex/two gender model
---idea took root during Renaissance
We talk about sex and gender as if they are the same and gender is determined by biology
Hua of Papua New Guniea
Gender classified on physical characteristics and amount of “nu”
Children- large amount of nu
Women in child bearing years- large amount of nu
Women post-menopausal- low amount of nu “like men”
Young men- low amount of nu
Elderly men- high amount of nu “like women”
Multiple Gender Categories:
The Third Gender
Some cultures recognize/institutionalize more than two genders (third/fourth genders)
Biological male- taking on a non-masculine gender identity
Biological female- taking on a non-feminine gender identity
Have marriage relationships with males/masculine person
-culturally & historically constructed-
-different ideas, beliefs, meanings, symbols and roles
-attributes that we associate with different genders
-how we ought to behave, what we ought to wear, what we should like
-how we define masculinity & femininity
-part of our cultural knowledge
What kinds of ideas, symbols, etc about masculinity & the 'appropriate behavior of men' is displayed in this commercial?
Do biological males always correspond to these ideals?
Argument that instead of having a gender identity, we perform our gender-
Take these different roles, ideas, symbols, norms and perform in our interactions with others.
And some do not perform, in order to challenge
But...is 'sex' actually as apparent as we think it is?
-- 1/100 differ from standard male/female
--2/1000 receive surgery to "normalize" genital appearance
Hegemonic idealised gender vs multiple ways of being a gendered person
Cultural definitions of how to be a gender, the symbols, and norms varies cross-culturally...
Sambia of PNG
masculinity= substance Jerungdu
understood to be 'strength'
biologically male children do not have...acquire through initiations
men contribute 'semen' to reproduction/ women contribute blood: "Semen makes all the infant: bone, skin, brain. One thing only, blood, your mom gives to you"
-- but blood is understood as overwhelming
--boys physical characteristics do not produce Jerungda..only can be acquired and stored.
Through acquisition of Jerungdu-- become both physical and gendered men-- source of idealized masculinity-strength, aggression, aloofness, arrogance
How do they learn these ideals?
Separate out sex/gender/sexual orientation
How is gender constructed among the Gebusi, particularly in the constitution of masculinity? What are the idealized visions of masculinity and femininity?
The Hijras in India
--How is the Hijra gender category given meaning via Hinduism?
Why is the term 'gender crossing' problematic?
How does the construction of masculinity and femininity relate to gender stratification?
--i.e. variance in status, access to resources, power etc.
not necessarily biologically DETERMINED. RELATED, but NOT DETERMINED.
--“raw material” that we build different ideas, beliefs, meanings, and roles around
--Construction of Reality