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Copy of Aphotic Zone Biome

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Adam Hazelton

on 9 March 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Aphotic Zone Biome

Background photo by t.shigesa
Aphotic Zone Biome
Alex Zirkle &
Merrin Overbeck

What is the Aphotic Zone?
The aphotic zone is the deepest layer of the world's oceans, can also occur in lakes though.
No sunlight at all reaches it, which is why it is sometimes referred to as the "Midnight Zone" or "Twilight Zone".
The pressure is extremely high and increases with depth.
Temperature is nearly freezing, and decreases with depth. (Roughly 0 °C (32 °F) to 6 °C (43 °F)
The aphotic zone is divided into two parts: The bathyal zone and the abyssal zone.
The abyssal zone covers 2,000m and below.
The bathyal zone extends from 200m to 2,000m.
Covers 73% of the ocean
Human Impacts
One of the most influential effects of humans on the ocean was littering and the dumping of waste, howver these actions have been banned since 1972, unfortunately the effects of this are still around today.
Industrial and Sewage waste continue to be illegally dumped from ships.
The arrival of litter and contaminants also is deposited into the ocean from coastal areas and river discharges.
Munitions (conventional and chemical) are also dumped into the ocean.
CO2 Sequestration (Capture and long-term storage of carbon dioxide)
-In particular, the accumulation of plastics on the sea floor can be ingested by the animals of the Aphotic Zone, causing damage to them.
-There is increasing evidence regarding the accumulation of heavy metals such as lead and mercury in the deep sea floor (dioxins and PCB's).
What lives in the Aphotic Zone?
Because of the lack of sunlight in the aphotic zone, photosynthesis cannot take place, therefore there are no plants or photosynthetic organisms.
Anglerfish, Cookie-cutter sharks, crabs and other crustaceans, dinoflagellates, lanternfish, mussels, nudibranchs, squid (like the vampire squid), segmented worms, tubeworms, pelican eel, Giant Squid, and viperfish all inhabit the aphotic zone.

Creatures of the Aphotic Zone
Future Problems
Most damaging effects will be from resource exploitation
Future problems: mineral extraction at Hydrothermal vents and on abyssal plains
Target important deposits of copper, nickel, and cobalt
Human Efforts to save the Aphotic Zone
In 1972, dumping of pollutants was made illegal in an attempt to prevent widespread ocean pollution.
The Deep Sea Conservation Coalition is very much affiliated with increasing awareness about the problems faced by the deep sea's creatures.
Why should we save the aphotic zone?
Oceans cover 2/3 of Earth's surface
Provide about 190 times as much living space as all of Earth's other environments put together (soil, air, and freshwater)
Scientists know more about the surface of the moon and mars than they do about the deep ocean (possible medicinal benefits and other discoveries)
Works Cited
Video: Creatures from the Ocean Depths Part 1
Characteristics of Deep-Sea Creatures
Must be able to deal with total darkness, the cold, and extreme pressure
Large eyes; strong sense of smell, touch, and vibration
Body Color (black, red, transparent)
Reproduction and role of Bioluminescence
Gigantism (giant squid, oarfish, giant amphipod)
Long,slow lives
Rely on detritus
Picture Sources
Disney/Pixar's "Finding Nemo"
Full transcript