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C/C Africa and the Americas WHAP
Transcript of C/C Africa and the Americas WHAP
Harty, AP World History
... which led to rise of Civilizations
mutual disproportion of populations... thanks Eurasia
Imported their domesticated plants and animals.
Writing? North and NE Africa know where it's at.
Frequent interaction with Eurasia
North w/ Med. and Arabia.
East Africa (Axum) part of Indian Ocean network.
Animals for domestication? Nah.
Metallurgy? Not as much.
Writing? Maya's got it!
Cut off from Eurasia... no matter what Ancient Aliens tells you.
Civilizations of Africa
Geography of Africa
Africa is a VERY large, and vertically aligned continent, making the various climate zones an integral part of its development.
Africa has the most tropical climate of the super continents, making the soil poor for agriculture and also leads to more disease-carrying insects and parasites.
Meroe: Nile River Valley
Southern part of Egyptian civilization, from Nubia.
As Egypt declined, focued on Moroe.
Absolute Monarch (sometimes a lady! Wu!)
Rural lands paid tribute to monarch.
Long distance trade w/ Med. even used camel caravans w/ West Africa.
Decline? Deforestization, conquered by Axum
The Axum Anomaly
Economy based on agriculture
supes effective due to plows.
used Red Sea to trade in the Indian Ocean Network --> very wealthy. Also traded w/ Med. region.
Culture- used monumental architecture, religion = Coptic Christianity.
This will be VERY important when we discuss the spread of Islam in the next time period.
Niger River Valley
Unique because decentralized.
No evidence of a state structure or widespread war, or social inequality.
Cities based on a specialized skill, which was then traded for other goods from other cities.
Will eventually give way to the rise of West African Kingdoms.
Civilizations of Mesoamerica
Geography: focused in present-day Guatemala and Belize.
Culture: advanced math, elaborate calendars, most elaborate writing of Americas, and monumental architecture.
Economy: Agriculture (but supes sophisticated with terracing, drainage, etc). Also had artisan class.
Political: City-states w/ regional kingdoms. Frequent warfare for POWs to use as slaves and sacrifice.
Fall? Mysterious, but here's our best hypotheses.
Drought compounded by growing population which outstripped resources.
Political rivalries couldn't allow city-states to ban together to address drought.
... and the always so popular Warfare increased leading to more fragmentation and loss of population.
Grew to population of over 100,000 by 550 CE.
Used grid-based urban planning.
Let's be honest- archeologists don't know a whole lot about this... little evidence of of rulers or tradition. They did have diplomatic relations with surrounding areas, but we don't know why they collapsed.
Aztecs will later name the place of Teotihuacan "city of the gods."
Andean Civs: Chavin and Moche
Became religious center.
Elaborate temple complex, used a hallucinogenic cactus.
Culture: advanced tech w/ complex irrigation, monumental pyramids, elaborate burials
Politics: warrior-priests, also practice a lil human sacrifice
Migrations began around 3000 BCE and spread over 400 Bantu languages to the South of Africa.
This migration was not a conquest.
This migration helped spread agricultural techniques to hunter-forager peoples, spread iron-working techniques, also diseases.
As Bantu peoples moved, also changed their culture (cultural diffusion) by adopting new plants and animals in East Africa.
Kingdoms that came to be as a result of Bantu Migrations: enya and Zimbabwe.
Most impressive of the pueblo societies in North America.
"Great House" or town had over 600 rooms.
Also had hundreds of roads that originated from this canyon.
Agriculture-based econ (as with most early civs) but also had astronomers and turquoise production.
Drought led to extended warfare which led to collapse (deja vu?)
Cahokia Mound Builders
near present day St. Louis.
Also had maize production like the Chaco.
Central mound was a 4-level terraced pyramid.
Had a social hierarchy and extensive trade network.