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Native Americans: 1860's - 1890's

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Shivane Patel

on 2 February 2014

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Transcript of Native Americans: 1860's - 1890's

1860
1870
1890
1880
Native Americans After the Civil War: 1860's - 1890's
1866: Red Cloud War
Mostly consisted of constant small-scale Indian raids and attacks on the soldiers and civilians at the three forts in the Powder River country.

The largest action of the war, the Fetterman Fight (with 81 men killed on the U.S. side), was the worst military defeat suffered by the U.S. on the Great Plains until the Battle of the Little Bighorn ten years later.
Red Cloud’s series of successful assaults ended with the Fort Laramie Treaty in 1868.
1867: Treaty of Medicine Lodge
The Medicine Lodge Treaty is the overall name for three treaties signed between the United States government and southern Plains Indian tribes in October 1867.
It intended to bring peace to the area by relocating the Native Americans to reservations in Indian Territory and away from European-American settlement.
The treaty was negotiated after investigation by the Indian Peace Commission.
They determined that the U.S. government and its representatives, including the United States Congress, had contributed to the warfare on the Great Plains by failing to fulfill their legal obligations and to treat the Native Americans with honesty.

1868: Treaty of Fort Laramie
The Treaty of Fort Laramie is also called the Sioux Treaty of 1868.

The Sioux are a Native Americans and First Nations people in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation.

This was an agreement between the United States and the Oglala, Miniconjou, and Brulé bands of Lakota people, Yanktonai Dakota, and Arapaho Nation signed in 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, guaranteeing to the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and further land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana.

The Powder River Country was to be henceforth closed to all whites. The treaty ended Red Cloud's War
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1874: Red River War
The Red River War was a military campaign launched by the United States Army in 1874 to remove the Comanche, Kiowa, Southern Cheyenne, and Arapaho Native American tribes from the Southern Plains and relocate them to reservations in Indian Territory.

It only lasted a few months, the war saw several army columns crisscross the Texas Panhandle in an effort to locate, harass and capture highly mobile Indian bands.

Most engagements were small skirmishes in which neither side suffered many casualties.

The war calmed down over the last few months of 1874 as fewer and fewer Indian bands had the strength and supplies to remain in the field.

The last group did not surrender until mid 1875, the war marked the end of free roaming Indian populations on the Southern Plains.

1874 - 1875: Black Hills Gold Rush
The Black Hills Gold Rush of 1875 drew prospectors onto Sioux hunting grounds in the Dakotas and Montana.

The Sioux was led by chiefs Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull.

They both wanted to drive out any prospectors, but the U.S. Army sent their own troops to fight against the Native Americans.
1864: Sand Creek Massacre
In 1862, after the Civil War, a group of Sioux Indians resisted threats to their land rights by attacking settlements in eastern Minnesota.

The government waged a full scale war against the Sioux, who were then pushed west into North & South Dakota.

The rebellion started a series of attacks on settlements & stagecoach lines as other Plains Indians also saw their way of life slipping away.

In the fall of 1864, a band of Colorado militia came to an unarmed camp of Cheyenne & Arapaino Indians, who were under U.S. Army protection, gathered at Sand Creek.
1887: The Dawes Act
Also knows as The General Allotment Act & The Dawes Severalty Act

Proposed by Congressman Henry Dawes of Massachusetts

Government divides reservations into individual land holdings

It was designed to encourage the breakup of the tribes and promote the assimilation of Indians into American Society

1876: Battle of the Little Big Horn
The Battle of the Little Bighorn was fought on June 25, 1876, near the Little Bighorn River in Montana Territory.

Federal troops led by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer fought against a band of Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne warriors, led by Crazy Horse.

Tensions between the two groups had been rising since the discovery of gold on Native American lands.

Custer was unaware of the number of Indians fighting under the command of Sitting Bull at Little Bighorn, and his forces were outnumbered.
Critical Thinking Questions
By: Cassidy Kaznowski, Aqsa Khan, Mariyah Moore, & Shivane Patel
The Fetterman Fight
Red Cloud and his followers lured Captain William Fetterman and his troops into an ambush, killing them all.
John Chivington was a Methodist Pastor who served as a Colonel in the U.S. Volunteers during the Colorado War during the Civil War
Chivington was the enemy to the Native Americans after the Civil War.
He gained infamy for leading 700 men of Colorado Territory militia during the Sand Creek Massacre.
Chivington and his men killed many and took scalps and other body parts as battle trophies.
John Chivington
Do you think it was the right decision of the Indians to fight back when the white settlers came onto their lands? Explain.
Why do you think the U.S still fought back even when some of the Natives tried to make peace with them?
The troops open fired, killing many men, women, and children despite the Indian’s efforts to achieve friendship by raising the American flag.

The Sand Creek Massacre started another round of warfare was Plains Indians joined forces to rebel white settlement.

Once the Civil War ended, Union troops were sent west to subdue the Indians.

1866 – legendary warrior Red Cloud and his followers lured Captain William Fetterman and his troops into an ambush, killing them all.

Human costs of the struggle drew a public outcry and called the government’s Indian policy into question.

Reformers and humanitarians promoted education for Indians while westerners sought stricter control.

US Indian Peace Commission concluded that lasting peace would only come if Native.

Americans settled on farms and adapted to white civilization.

Government divides reservations into individual land holdings

Congressman Henry Dawes of Massachusetts aka the General Allotment Act (The Dawes Severalty Act)

It was designed to encourage the breakup of the tribes and promote the assimilation of Indians into American Society

Crazy Horse was a legendary warrior and leader of the Lakota Sioux, recognized for his battle skills as well as his efforts to preserve Native American traditions and way of life.

He fought alongside Sitting Bull and others in the American-Indian Wars, and was important in the defeat of George Custer's forces at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

After surrendering to federal troops in 1877, he was killed amid rumors of a planned escape.

Sitting Bull belonged to the Hunkpapa band, which was one of the seven Lakota Sioux groups that lived by hunting buffalo.

Because he was a famed fighter, he was given the position as war chief in his late twenties.

He was very holy and religious, so he also became a spiritual leader.

He had such a great reputation, that by the late 1860’s, he was named chief of all seven bands, one of the first times in history this had ever happened.

After several years in Canada, Sitting Bull finally surrendered to U.S. forces with his people on the brink of starvation, and was finally forced to settle on a reservation.

In 1890, he was shot and killed while being arrested by U.S. and Indian agents.

Sitting Bull is remembered for his great courage and his determination to resist white domination.

George Custer was a colonel that rushed ahead of the other columns of the U.S. Cavalry, arriving a day ahead of everyone else.

Custer and his force of about 250 men unexpectedly came across a group of 25,000 Indians near the Little Big Horn River, (located in present-day Montana), In June 1876.

When they were spotted, Crazy Horse led a charge against Custer and his men, killing them all.

This event is known as the Battle of the Little Big Horn. The battle is also known as "Custer's Last Stand," which was part of the Black Hills War against a confederation of Plains Indians, including the Cheyenne and Dakota Sioux.

It still remains one of the most controversial battles in U.S. history.
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