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Cell Cycle 1: Mitosis

Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The Internet. Provided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Derived from content by David Knuffke.

Thomas Hattori

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of Cell Cycle 1: Mitosis

Cell Division
Why Divide?
The Cell Cycle
The "continuity of life"
In order to survive, the individual must replace damaged cells.
In order to grow, cell production must be greater than cell death.
In order to survive, the species must replace individuals.
Cell division accomplishes these purposes.
A dividing amoeba
A dividing bone marrow cell
A dividing sea urchin embryo
The phases of a cell's life
G1- growth
S- DNA replication
G2- preparation for division
M - Mitosis

G0- Non-dividing state (most cells in you)
Very tightly controlled
Tightly coiled pieces of DNA that condense prior to division
Prokaryotes only have one, circular chromosome.

Eukaryotes have many, linear chromosomes
After "S-Phase", each chromosome is composed of an attached, identical pair.

Sister Chromatid: 1 member of the pair
Centromere: region where they are joined
S phase
Make sure you understand the chromosome, chromatid relationship

It can be confusing...
Haploid vs. Diploid
1 copy of every chromosome (n)
2 copies of every chromosome (2n)
In Mitosis, all cells are diploid.

Human cells have 46 chromosomes

How many chromatids are present during:
The Evolution of Mitosis
There are more similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell division than might be apparent at first glance.

Proteins involved in binary fission
& eukaryotic cell division have a
large degree of homology.
Some unicellular eukaryotes demonstrate "intermediate" modes of division.
Binary fission in bacteria
(aka "rolling circle replication")
Let's play "spot the phases"
"Non-Reductive" Eukaryotic Cell Division
"Binary Fission"
Watch it Happen!
Full transcript