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Copy of Important Ions in the Human Body

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brenda soliano

on 11 March 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Important Ions in the Human Body

Another important ion in the body is the Electrolyte Ion:

- subtances that give us ions when dissolved in water are known as electrolytes

- they can conduct electricity due to the mobility of cations and anions

-Sodium, calcium, chloride, magnesium and potassium are the most common electrolytes in the human body

-electrolytes are electrically charged, which means that they can conduct electrical impulses

- The body needs electrical impulses to make muscle cells contract

-The generation of an electrical impulse by a cell requires an electrical voltage to be maintained across the membrane of that cell. The difference in electrolyte levels creates and maintains these electrical voltages

- The kidneys filter electrolytes from the blood and work to keep their levels in the blood constant. Hormones (like antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone and parathyroid hormone) also help regulate electrolyte balance.

-Normal body functions, not to mention performance, are severely compromised if adequate levels of electrolytes are not present, especially in the heat and/or when exercise goes beyond the two-hour mark

- Gatorade icorporates electrolytes into their drinks in order increase athletes performance during intense excercise
Current Research
(Negative Ions)
What are Ions?
This presentation will include:
An explanation of what ions are
Ions and Electrolyte
Their functions in the body
Some important ions in the body
The issue with ions in the body
Food Sources of some important ions in the body
Works Cited list
The Essential Ions in the
Human Body
Sodium (Na+)
- regulates the amount of water in the human body
- movement of sodium in and out of cells is critical in sending electrical signals for brain, nervous system and muscles
Potassium (K+)
- the function is to regulate heartbeat, reduce blood pressure, ,used in protein synthesis, maintains fluid and acid balance, required for muscles and nerves to function, helps lungs eliminate carbon dioxide and important in kidney function
-is a cation and is pumped into the cells while sodium is pumped out
- it is essential in conducting electrical impulses to tell muscles to move
Calcium (Ca++)
- its movement in and out of the cytoplasm is essential as a signal in several cellular processes
- it is also very important in the mineralization of bones in the body of humans and animals
Chloride (Cl-)
- controls the flow of fluid in the blood vessels and tissues and also regulates the level of acidity in the body
Hydrogen (H+)
- is a part of the digestion process and can be found in proteins, water, DNA, sugars and fats
Bicarbonate (HCO)^3-
- it is secreted in the stomach and is neccesary for digestions
- kills lactic acid during excercise and reduces acidity of dietary substances
- is present in bodily fluids and organs and contributes to acid base balances in the body
Some important Ions in the Human Body
Magnesium (Mg++)
- helps regulate blood pressure, plays a role in the formation of bones and teeth, assists in the process of fats and proteins and also helps secrete parathyroid hormones
Phosphate (PO4)^3-
-helps build and repair bones and teeth
- contributes to nerve function and movement of muscles
There can be major issues in your body if you have too much or too little of a particular ion
- an excess of potassium is known as hyperkalemia and is caused by kidney disease and can result in nausea, vomiting, fatigue, muscle weakness and tingling sensations
- a lack of potassium is known as hypokalemia and is caused by kidney diseases, heavy sweating, diarrhea or vomiting
- the normal blood potassium level is 3.5-5.0 millimoles/liter
- an excess of sodium in relation to water is known as hyponatremia and is caused by kidney disease, dehydration and water loss due to diarrhea or vomiting
- this can increase your risk of stomach cancer, kidney issues and heart failure
- a lack of sodium in the blood occurs when there is an increase in water compared to sodium and is caused by diseases in the liver and kidney or in people with congestive heart failure and burn victims
- the normal blood sodium level is 135-145 millimoles/liter
- a lack of magnesium can create mild symptoms such as fatigue, confusion, insomnia, muscle twitching and poor memory, more serious side effects may include numbness, delirium, hallucinations and tingling
- an excess of calcium compared to blood is cause by parathyroid disease and is know as hypercalcemia
- mild cases may lead to fatigue, nausea, poor appetite and constipation. Higher levels may cause muscle twitching, depression, confusion and possibly death
- a lack of calcium may cause colon cancer, high blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, loss of muscle tone, cramps and osteoparosis
- chloride defficiency may be due to insufficient sodium consumption, prolonged diahhrea or sweating
- symptoms include muscle tension, weakness, twitching and depressed breathing
- chloride excess is caused be reabsorbing too much chloride, dehydration and metabolic compensations
- symptoms could be rapid heartbeat, difficult breathing, swelling, high blood pressure, weakness and confusion
- Phosphate deficiency is very rare but can lead to speech problems,mental confusion,infections,little energy and anaemia
- Too much phosphate iss generally caused by consuming too much dietary phosphate or liver disease. Too much phosphate can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease
-The lungs and kidney regulate bicarbonate levels therefor if there is an issue with bicarbonate levels it usually indicates something is wrong with those organs
-Irregular amounts of bicarbonate can interfer with ability to digest and can cause improper acid balances
- the more negatively charged ions there are in the blood the more efficient your metabolism whereas the more positive ions the less effective your metabolic process will be
- this was found due an experiment where positive ions were exposed to the skin causing glands to contract, however the negative ions did the opposite when exposed to the skin which demonstrates good metabolism of the cell membrane

negative ions benefit the body in the following ways:
- strengthens the functions of the nerves
- reinforces collagen
- improves permeability of plasma membranes
- strengthens the bodies immune systems

negative ions also provide positive effects on health aswell:
- stimulate reticulo endothio system which helps fight of diseases
- helps us utilize oxygen, accelerates delivery of oxygen to our cells and also our
- accelerates oxidation of seratonin which effects mood, pain relief and sexual drive

The USDA also performed an experiment on the effectiveness of negative ions at removing airborne salmonella:
-the test was very successful the salmonella particles were drastically reduced
- after the experiment the USDA stated, "These results indicate that negative air ionization can have a significant impact on the airborne microbial load in a poultry house and at least a portion of this effect is through direct killing of the organisms."

Many recent studies have shown the following:

- that negative ions reduce allegies, respiratory problems and even asthma
- a study at columbia showed that negative ions are a more effect anti-depressant than prozac and zolaf and they have no side effects
- negative ions can regulate serotonin which decreases fatigue
- a study in France showed the resulting reduced serotonin from negative ions also makes people sleep better
- studies have showed people exposed to negative ion treatment perform better in mental activities
- due to test results russians installed negative ionizers in russian athletes locker rooms in hopes of it improving performance
- studies showed people that had been burned healed faster when exposed to negative ions


Magnesium in diet: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (n.d.). National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyMagnesium

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (n.d.). National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency

MedlinePlus - Health Information from the National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/

Hypercalcemia, High Calcium - Cancer Symptoms, Chemotherapy & Chemo Side Effects. (n.d.). Chemotherapy Drugs and Side Effects Information - Chemo Care. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://www.chemocare.com/managing/hypercalcemia-high-calcium.asp

Hyponatremia, Low Sodium - Cancer Symptoms, Chemotherapy & Chemo Side Effects. (n.d.). Chemotherapy Drugs and Side Effects Information - Chemo Care. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://www.chemocare.com/managing/hyponatremia-low-sodium.asp

Physiological Benefits of Negative Ions on the Human Body | Latest | Winalite New Zealand. (n.d.). Health | Hygiene | Anion | Wealth | Business Opportunity | Love Moon | Winalite New Zealand. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://www.winalitenewzealand.com/latest/physiological-benefits-of-negative-ions-on-the-human-body.html

The Role of Ions in Body Chemistry | Bob McCauley's Blog. (n.d.). NatureBuilt Blog with Bob McCauley. Chlorella, Water Ionizer.. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://blog.watershed.net/2009/05/25/the-role-of-ions-in-body-chemistry/

Theoretical, I. o., Biophysics, E., & Russian. (n.d.). Negative Ions. Detoxion Detox Foot Patches and Ionic Patch. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://www.detoxion.com/negative%20i

Nielsen, M. T. (n.d.). Articles - Trace Minerals Research. Home Page - Trace Minerals Research. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://www.traceminerals.com/research/ions2

The Importance of Ions to Human's Health Essay. (n.d.). Example Essays.com - Over 80,000 essays, term papers and book reports!. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://www.exampleessays.com/viewpape

Ki Flow Ion Therapy Necklaces and Bracelets ~ Tourmaline, Zeolite, Negative Ions, Healing. (n.d.). Negative Ion Bracelets | Minus Ionic Bracelet | Healing Necklaces. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://www.kiflow.com/info/ions.html

-ions are charged particles; that is, any basic particle that has a positive or negative charge
- when an electron is gained or detatched from its original atom an ion is formed
- the measure of the energy required to remove an electron and in turn form an ion is known as ionization energy
- the concentration of ions within the blood can be calculated using molarity
- Molarity is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution and the formula for molarity is:
M = moles of solute / volume of solution in L

- electrolytes can conduct electricity due to the mobility of cations and anions
- strong electrolytes completely dissolve and no neutral molecules are formed
- ex. NaCl which can be represented by the equation:
NaCl = Na+(aq) + Cl- (aq)
- becuase there is no molecules present in NaCl the solid or the solution it is complete

- small fractions of weak electrolytes ionize when dissolved in water
- ex. H2CO3 which can be represented by the equation:
H2OCO3 = H+ (aq) + HCO3- (aq)
- there are molecules present in the reaction therefore the fraction undergoes ionization

Chemical reactions of electrolytes:
-when electrolyte solutions are combined negative and positive ions will meet
- some cations and anions form a molecule or solid and these are called metathesis reactions, they include:
-solid formation the cations and anions form a less soluble solution and appear as a precipitate
- neutralization reaction: H+ the solid and OH- the base form a neutralwater molecule
- gas formation reaction:neutral gaseous molecules are formed during a reaction they leave a solution of gas
Chemistry involved in electrolytes
Ionization energy
by Brenda Soliano
An Ion is an atom that have a charge. Group of atoms that have a charged are called polyatomic ions. Atoms either give up their valence electrons (electrons in the outermost shell) to produce positively charged ions called cations, or they accept extra electrons into their valence shell to produce negatively charged ions called anions. The number of electrons given up or accepted corresponds to the number of electrons needed to produce a filled valence shell.
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