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War of the Roses

1455 - 1485
by

Caroline Bwada

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of War of the Roses

WAR OF THE ROSES

1455 - 1485

Reign of Edward III
1327 - 1377
Only five of his sons survived to adulthood :

- Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Prince of Aquitaine
- Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence ...
-
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
...
-
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, Earl of Cambridge
- Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester ...

The heirs of the first four sons will later fight for the throne.
1376
Edward the black Prince, very famous for his military skills (which he applied against the french army) died before his father.
His son Richard became heir to the throne.
Reign of Richard II
1377 - 1399
He was only ten years old when he became king of England, and had to deal with the Hundred Years' War, a peasants ' revolt, the discontent of noblemen, ...
A group of them called the "Lords appelant" took control of the government. He had to deal with many issues like in ...
1399
Henry of Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt (3rd Edward III's son), said his cousin was unworthy to reign. He also disqualified his other cousin, Edmund Mortimer, great-grand-son of Lionel of Antwerp (2nd Edward III's son), normally placed before him in the order of succession.

He was crowned in October and became king

Henry IV (first of the Lancaster kings)
Reign of Henry IV
1399 - 1413
Reign of Henry V
1413 - 1422

He left the throne to his son, Henry V
He died at the age of 35, after a great reign : the Hundred Years' War seemed close to be won after the battle of Azincourt (1415). The Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry V as regent and heir-apparent to the French throne, and he was married to the daughter of the King of France, Catherine of Valois .
1415
Henry V had to suffer a revolt of
Richard of Conisburgh
, Earl of Cambridge, son of Edmund of Langley, duke of York (4th Edward III's son), who was married to a Mortimer (Edmund Mortimer's sister), thus descendant of Lionel of Antwerp (2nd Edward III's son).
The Earl of Cambridge was executed.
Reign of Henry VI
1422 - 1461
During the reign of Henry V's son (or rather of his advisers), the defeats of England in France started piling up.
In 1453, Henry VI was believed to have become insane, and
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York
, son of Richard of Conisburgh (who died beheaded) and Anne Mortimer, stood as "Lord Protector".

In 1455, the king went back in good health, and his wife, Margaret of Anjou, French princess, decided to take matter in hand, and Richard gets worried about losing all the power.

He decided to take up arms and march on London.
1455, 22 of Mai :
BATTLE OF ST-ALBAN
After the battle, a shaky agreement was settled, the king could stay on the throne, while Richard remained Lord Protector.
It didn't work out.
Supporters of the Duke of York were still agressive.

THE WAR OF THE ROSES HAS OFFICIALLY BEGUN
1460, 10 of July :
BATTLE OF NORTHAMPTON
York's allies landed in England after having been prepared at Calais.
Led by the Earl of Warwick, their army crushed the king's army.
The king was taken prisoner.

By the Act of Accord, Richard, duke of York, was made the successor of King Henry VI, whom the noblemen did not dare overthrow ;
Margaret of Anjou (and his young son) were hunted. But in the north, she gathered around her defenders of the Lancaster branch.
1460, 30 of December :
BATTLE OF WAKEFIELD
The battle turned into a disaster for the York : Richard and his second son were killed. Edward, Earl of March, eldest son of Richard, became the pretender to the throne.
In 1461, Queen Margaret managed to snatch her husband from the clutches of York (second battle of St. Albans).

A little later, welcomed by Parliament and by the people and clergy of London,
Edward Earl of March

was crowned king.
1461, 24 of March :
BATTLE OF TOWTON
For both sides, it had to be the decisive battle. It was certainly the most deadly (more than 20 000 deaths).The victory of York was doubtless,
Edward IV


had become completely king, Henry and Margaret fleed to Scotland.

He was officially crowned in June of the same year
Edward III,
1327 - 1377
John of Gaunt,
Duke of Lancaster
Edmund of Langley,
Duke of York
Lionel of Antwerp,
Duke of Clarence
Henri of Bolingbroke,
then Henri IV
1399 - 1413
Richard of Conisburgh
Thomas of Woodstock,
Duke of Gloucester
Edward,
the Black Prince
Richard II,
1377 - 1399
Henri V
1413 - 1422
Philippa
Edmund Mortimer
Roger Mortimer
Edmund Mortimer
Anne Mortimer
Richard Plantagenet,
Duke of York
Henri VI
1422 - 1461
Edward, Earl of March
then Edward IV
1461 - 1483
Reign of Edward IV
1461 - 1483
In 1464, the King got married (first secretly) with Elizabeth Woodville, daughter of Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers. The new queen will sow disorder in the court, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, "the kingmaker" turned away from his king.
In 1465, the former King Henry VI was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
1469, 26 of July:
BATTLE OF EDGECOTE MOOR
Warwick and the army he lifted with the younger brother of King Edward, George, Duke of Clarence, managed to capture the king.
The father of the Queen, Richard Woodville, was executed.
But the other king's brother, Richard of Gloucester, came at the head of an army, and released King Edward.
Warwick fled to France, and there (on the advice of King Louis XI of France) joined forces with Margaret of Anjou, who had already taken refuge in the court of France. Their children, Edward of Westminster heir of Lancaster and Anne Neville, got married.
Edward
of Westminster
1471, 14 of April :
BATTLE OF BARNET
Warwick "the Kingmaker"got killed.
1471, 4 of May :
BATTLE OF TEWKESBURY
Edward of Westminster (18) died on the battlefield.
This is the only Prince of Wales ever to die in battle.Ten days later,
the old King Henry VI was murdered.
Edward IV is finally firmly seated on the throne.
He died only ten years later, in 1483.

THE FIRST PART OF THE CONFLICT IS OVER
After the death of King Edward, anger growled against the Woodville, the queen's family, which had gained much honors and titles from Edward's new power.
Leagued against those parvenus, the English nobility had as a leader
Richard of Gloucester
, brother of the late king, who had come to save him from the Lancaster.
He was named Lord Protector, he tore his two nephews apart from their mother's family, including the king in title , little
Edward V
.
Soon, he declared the marriage of his deceased brother illegitimate, making his two nephews bastards. They were locked up in the Tower of London.
He was crowned king under the name of
Richard III
26 June 1483.
The two young princes disappeared, probably murdered.
Reign of Richard III
1483 - 1485
Richard of Gloucester,
then Richard III
1483 - 1485
Elizabeth of York
Edward V
Richard of
Shrewsbury
The Lancaster put their last hopes in the young prince
Henry Tudor
.
His father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, was the half-brother of Henry VI, last lancastrian king. Edmund's mother Catherine de Valois had indeed been married to Owen Tudor after her first husband, Henry V, passed away.
Owen Tudor, whose real name was Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur, welsh

Lord, was the commander of Lancastrian forces at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross in 1461 ; he was then captured and beheaded.
Henry Tudor's mother, Margaret Beaufort, was by her father a descendant of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the third son of King Edward III.

In the summer of 1485, he arrived in Britain, and marched through Wales to face Richard III's army.
1485, 22 of August :
BATTLE OF BOSWORTH
This was a complete victory for the Lancaster, Richard III was killed.
Henry Tudor was crowned king (October 30) and became King
Henry VII.
Last champion of the branch of Lancaster, he married Princess Elizabeth of York, daughter of the late King Edward IV, York heiress and sister of the princes in the Tower.
Reign of Henri VII
1485 - 1509
THE WAR OF THE ROSES CAME TO AN END.

King Henry VII still had to face two attempted uprising by impostors, one pretending to be the Earl of Warwick, a descendant of George, Duke of Clarence, and of the daughter of the Kingmaker, the other the little Edward V.

The Tudor dynasty was installed on the throne.The marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York was,for what we know, successful, and fruitful.
If their first son died young (Arthur, Prince of Wales), their second son will be the famous Henry VIII, and their two daughters Queen of Ireland and Queen of France (even briefly).
Catherine de Valois
Owen Tudor
Edmund Tudor
John Beaufort
John Beaufort
Margaret Beaufort
Henri VII
1483 - 1485
Caroline BOUR, 3rd of April 2013
Full transcript