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The Start of Ancient Rome
Transcript of The Start of Ancient Rome
When Rome was first founded, it was run under a Monarchy, with Romulus being the first king. A major civilization to the north of Rome were the Etruscans. They were expanding their territory, Etruria, and eventually they moved into Rome. Starting shortly before 600 B.C.E., the Etruscans would rule Rome for the next 66 years. Before the Etruscan influence, Romans were a small village of straw-roofed huts, but soon became a walled city with paved roads. During this time, the first six kings were good and treated the people with respect. The last king, Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin The Proud), was very harsh to the people. In 509 B.C.E, the people of Rome overthrew him and adopted a very new form of government ---- a republic.
Facts: During the age of the kings, many temples were built and one of the first ever sewer systems, Cloaca Maxima, was constructed. It is still in use today!
THE REPUBLIC GOVERNMENT
During the Republic, new political offices were created and old ones were adapted to fit the changes. Instead of having one king, there is now two consuls who have equal power, a senate (patricians), who elected on who the next consuls would be, and an assembly, who were all of the common people (plebeians). In some cases, when there was an emergency, one consul could become more powerful over the other so they can make choices quicker.
The Romans soon started expanding north into sourthern Etruria and eventually conquered the entire Italian Peninsula. The Romans made strategic treaties with neighboring groups to make it easier to conquer the northern city-states.
STRUCTURE OF THE GOVERNMENT
CONSULS- at first were both patricians; in 367 B.C.E., one was patrician, one was plebeian; one year term; chose the senators; commanded the army
SENATE- patricians- served for life; controlled spending; approved or disapproved laws made by assembly; made decisions concerning foreign relationships
ASSEMBLY- plebeians- chose the consuls; elected government officials (judges); voted on laws (had to be passed by senate); declared war or peace but had to be passed through senate
THE START OF ANCIENT ROME
Rome was started by twin brothers, Romulus and Remus. They were raised by a she-wolf along the banks of the Tiber River. After a few years of living with the she-wolf, a shepard wonders upon them and brings them to his home. Until they are teens, Romulus and Remus live with the sherpard and his wife.
When the twins got older, they both wanted to build a city but didn't know where to. Romulus wanted to found the city around the Palatine Hill but Remus wanted to found it around the Aventine Hill. So they each went to their hill and waited for a sign from the gods. Romulus saw 12 birds, meaning 1200 years of the city but Remus only saw 6 birds meaning 600 years of the city (each bird means 100 years).
As they were building their cities, Remus made fun of the walls Romulus was building because he could jump over them. Romulus got furious and the two ended up getting into a huge argument resulting in Romulus killing Remus. Thus you get the name, Rome!
Starting during the first years of the republic, there was major troubles between the two social classes; the patricians and the plebeians. The plebeians rioted because they didn't think it was fair patricians had more rights. They then left Rome and threatened to create their own city. Many of them were soldiers, blacksmiths, potters, stone cutters; basically any job that payed. If Rome didn't have that, the city and the entire empire couldn't survive. The laws of ancient Rome were written down on the Twelve Tables in 449B.C.E., so that everyone could see them. This was just the start of resolving this situation
The troubles lasted over 200 years until 284 B.C.E., when finally the patricians gave into the plebeians. The plebeians wanted to be represented by new officials called tribunes. Also, after the passage of a new law, lex Hortensia, the two sides became equal.
PATRICIAN AND PLEBEIAN PROBLEMS
The Political Structure of the Roman Republic
BY: ALEX SHELL
THE END OF THE REPUBLIC
Soldier and Slave
TYPES OF CLOTHING IN ROME
one of a number of elected magistrates (judges) charged chiefly with the administration of civil justice and ranking next below a consul.
responsible for the maintenance of public buildings
one of the public magistrates in charge of the state funds
originally composed of Roman cavalry, many became wealthy business men, bankers, tax collectors, and exporters
Julius Caesar started out as a senate member but soon created the first ever Triumvirate, where three people shared equal powers as consuls. He was joined by Pompey and Crassus. After Crassus was killed during a battle, a war broke out between Caesar and Pompey on who would control Rome.
The Senate order Caesar to disband his troops and give up. Instead, he retreated to Gaul and stayed there for many years. He tried to run for office from Gaul but was denied by the senate because he had to be in Rome. He got furious and attacked the city of Rome. In 45 B.C.E, Caesar defeated the Romans and became the first dictator of Rome and thus ending the Roman Republic.
One of the most famous people of ancient Rome was Julius Caesar. He was born in 100 B.C.E to Aurelia Cotta and Gaius Julius Caesar. In 58 B.C.E, he traveled to Gaul; he would not return for nine years. He conquered what is present day Europe. In 48 B.C.E, when he traveled to Egypt in pursue of Pompey, he met Cleopatra, who he would later supposedly marry. By the time Caesar arrived in Egypt, the King had already ordered soldiers to kill Pompey and cut off his head.
But, Cleopatra wanted the throne back from her brother (who was the king) and she was prepared to go to war with him. With the help of Julius Caesar, she got the throne back and the two ended up having a huge love story. The following year, Cleopatra gave birth to Caesar's only son, Caesarion.
FIRST PUNIC WAR 264-241 B.C.E
The First Punic War was fought between Rome and Carthage. This battle was to determine who would control Sicily, a small island south of Rome and north of Carthage. The only downfall for the Romans is that they have no working navy at this time. They built 160 ships, each equipped with a land bridge. When the Roman ships got close enough to the Carthage ships, they would lower the land bridge, connecting the two ships. The Roman soldiers would then cross over to the other ship and start fighting, like what they would do on land. In 241 B.C.E. the Carthage leader, Hamilcar, was cornered in Sicily and surrendered. This ended the war, and Rome gained control of Sicily.
SECOND PUNIC WAR 218-201 B.C.E
The Second Punic War started when Carthage attacked the city of Saguntum, a Roman ally. Hamilcar died ten years earlier, and let his son, Hannibal, take control of the empire. He lead his troops through Spain all the way to the Alps. When he finally crosses them, he lost over half of his men and only had one remaining elephant.
When he got into the Italian Peninsula, he destroyed many farms which left many farmers jobless. The farmers had three choices: go into a share-crop with another farmer who didn't lose his farm, go to the city and try to find a job, or join the army and hope to make enough money doing so.
A Roman commander of Scipio Africanus had an idea. Since Hannibal was crossing the Alps, who was protecting Carthage? With the ships that were left, he crossed the Mediterranean Sea and invaded Africa. Hannibal had no choice but to engage the Romans in Carthage. In 202 B.C.E. Scipio defeated Hannibal and a year later a treaty was signed that officially ended the war. Carthage had to surrender her navy, give up all of her territory in Spain, and pay 10,000 talents over 50 years.
THIRD PUNIC WAR 149-146 B.C.E.
The Third Punic War started when Carthage broke the treaty they signed at the ended of the Second Punic War. The Romans, under the command of Scipio Aemilianus (Scipio Africanus the Younger), were sent to Carthage and completely destroyed the city. Scipio Aemilianus went house to house destroying anything in his path.
Before the start of the Third Punic War, Carthage may have had as many as a half a million people living in the city. After the war, only about 50,000 people remained. They were sold into slavery and Rome took control of their territory. It became a province under the name of Africa.
The Romans were not known to completely level cities but Carthage was an exception. They hated them ever since the First Punic War and then some. If the Romans were to conquer new lands, the conquered people actually wanted to join the Romans because the Romans were so advanced at that time. Very few times did they use brute force to take over new lands.
This is Romulus and Remus being raised by the she-wolf. This statue (known as the Capitoline Wolf)is located in the Museum Palazzo Dei Conservatori in Rome, Italy
This is a video on how the Rome started.
Social Studies Book
Google and Google Images
Roman Land Bridge
Hannibal's troops traveling through the Alps
CONQUEST OF THE MEDITERRANEAN
After the defeat of Carthage, Rome turned east and conquered Greece and Macedonia. By 50 B.C.E, Rome controlled the entire area around the Mediterranean including Greece, Spain, Gaul, Asia Minor, and North Africa. With this, Rome is now able to trade with basically everyone by using the Mediterranean. They got fine silk from China, cotton and wild animals from Egypt, and silver from Great Britain.
http://explorethemed.com/romemed.asp?c=1- Visit this website to see the expansion of Rome between 330 B.C.E and 70 C.E.
THE FALL OF ROME
One of the many factors that lead to the fall of Rome was the rising of a new religion, Christianity. Since Christianity is the belief of one god, and the Romans believed in many, it did not suit well for the Romans. Many emperors killed anyone that was Christian and did not want this religion in Rome. Christianity was popular among the poor and around 320 C.E., Constantine the Great made it the official state religion. Historians don't know exactly why Constantine favored this religion or which form he liked. Also, at that time, the empire was too big, making them open to more attacks in a wider area. If they were smaller, they could focus the army in one spot, not many.
Another factor that lead to the downfall is that in 285 C.E., Constantine split the empire into two parts (the east half around Rome and the west half around Constantinople, a city named after himself). Over time, the east thrived but the west declined and the west side of Rome fell in 476 C.E. The east side of the Roman empire continued as Byzantine Empire for almost another 1000 years. Many people consider the fall of Rome as only the west side, not both (Byzantine didn't fall until 1453 C.E.).
There are many other factors that also lead to the fall including lack of agriculture (farming), prices food and other critical supplies they needed were going up, and the east had nothing to trade for the stuff they did get. Instead, they had to make money but it contained very little silver. The west thought they were getting ripped off and they wanted more.
THE RISE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
The rise of the Roman Empire all started when Julius Caesar became the sole dictator of Rome. When Caesar died in 44 B.C.E, Mark Antony, being one of Caesar's long time friends, thinks he is going to take the throne, but Octavian does instead. Octavian is the first emperor of Rome and later joins with Marc Antony and Marcus Lepidus, form the second triumvirate and team up to kill Caesar's assassins. In 41 B.C.E., Marc Antony travels to Egypt and meets Cleopatra. The two of them end up forming another big relationship which lasts for eleven years.
The triumvirate was eventually torn apart with Lepidus driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Marc Antony and Cleopatra committing suicide in 31 B.C.E. after being defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Actium.
In 27 B.C.E., four years after Octavian defeated Marc Antony and Cleopatra at the battle of Actium, Octavian got a new name, Augustus and at the same time it also started the Pax Romana (Roman Peace). It lasted over 200 hundred years with very little fighting. Also, Rome reached its maximum land area and amount of people, estimated at almost 70 million, one fifth of the world's population at that time.
80 C.E.- The Colosseum is built.
125 C.E.- The Pantheon is built, meaning a temple to the gods.
64 C.E.- Emperor Nero sets fire to Rome, most is burned, supposedly he plays the fiddle while this is happening, blames Christians
122 C.E.- Hadrian's Wall is built, a long wall across central Great Britain, marking the end of the Roman expansion
The Romans were very good architects and engineers, they had 50,000 miles of paved roads and 200,000 miles of unpaved roads,
To bring water to the city, the Romans built Aqueducts, a system of channels and bridges
A lot of the food the Romans ate was fatty, soft, and slightly rotten.
Between the Greeks and the Romans, the Romans have a more similar type of government
If look carefully, a lot of the architect in the US comes from the Romans
THE DECLINE OF ROME
In 180 C.E., after the death of Marcus Aurelius, the Pax Romana started to end and started a period of civil unrest. Not only could farmers not farm as much due to the high population, food prices started to rise. A civilization in northern Europe; the barbarians, also had an effect on the decline of Rome. If the Roman would have fought them while they weren't declining, they would have been toast. The Romans couldn't afford to train the better soldiers, so they hired cheaper, less effective soldiers. The Barbarians ended up invading Rome and they overcame the empire.
Also, many diseases were being spread around Rome from the Gladiator fights at the Colosseum, to lead pipes contaminating the water in the aqueducts.
Before the the decline of Rome, emperors may have lasted upwards of 40 years, but In the 200's C.E., Rome had 37 emperors, 25 being removed by assassination.
Many of the taxes that were coming into Rome were spent on personal items for the emperors. When people found out, they stopped paying them. They were soon payed by giving the government fruits and vegetables.
If someone needed something, they were more likely to barter since they had little money to spend. The value of coins started to decrease since there was less gold in them, and people didn't want to use them as often anymore.
Due to many Barbarian attacks, military spending was very high. It left very little money for critical activities including providing public housing and maintaining quality roads.
When Romulus saw a sign from the gods (12 birds, meaning 1200 years) he was 29 years off 753 B.C.E-476 C.E. (1229 years)