Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Ph.D Viva Voce Presentation 2013

The PPT presents my PhD Thesis
by

Sankarakumar Sankara Pandian

on 3 October 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Ph.D Viva Voce Presentation 2013

Introduction
Literature Survey: Models of Reading, Strategies and Different Variables
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Summary and Conclusions
References
List of Publications

The Impact of Reading Strategies on the Performance of Male and Female Students of First year Engineering in
Reading Comprehension Tests

Agenda
Literature Survey
Methodology

Presented by
S.Sankarakumar (7081012136)

Supervisor
Dr. S. Chandrakanthi
Associate Professor & Head (Retd.)
Department of English
PSG College of Technology
Coimbatore - 641004

Joint Supervisor
Dr. P. Malathy
Assistant Professor (SG)
Department of Science and Humanities (English)
Kumaraguru College of Technology
Coimbatore - 641049

03.10.2013
Introduction
Today, learners face a lot of challenges to succeed in their profession. Besides acquiring the technical knowledge, the learners should also develop the ability to use effectively the English Language to achieve success in their career. The ability to use the language intelligently involves the mastering the skills of reading, which is one of the basic skills towards acquiring proficiency in English Language.
Education System and English Language Learning in Tamil Nadu
English in India today is a symbol of people's aspirations for quality in education and fuller participation in National and International life (NCERT 2006:1)
Higher Secondary Education
Science stream
Commerce stream
Humanities (Arts)
State Board -

Academic and Vocational - Medium of Instruction - Tamil
Matriculation - English

Central Boards of Secondary Education -

English
Entrance Examinations:
All India Common Entrance Examinations
Tamil Nadu Professional Courses Entrance Examinations

Tamil Nadu Engineering Admissions
Need for the study
The students of Engineering institutions in Tamil Nadu seek guidance to study in an English speaking country where they need to show their proficiency level in English.
No single study completely indicates the proficiency level of the students of engineering institutions especially in reading skills.
Do reading strategies play an important role in improving reading skills of engineering students?
Do the male and female students of first year engineering use similar strategies when they have been introduced to standardized reading passages?
Does the use of strategies such as planning, paying attention, inference, comprehending and reflecting have an impact on the students' performance?
Definition of reading
Reading is the ability to draw meaning from printed page and interpret the information appropriately ( Grabe and Stoller 2011a).

Reading is searching for meaning. A reader interacts with the text, converts the letters and words into meaning and tries to understand the message (Alderson 2000a).
Common views on reading
Reading as Communication

Reading as Interaction

Reading as a Psycho-linguistic process

Factors influencing the reading process
Attitude
Motivation
Concentration
Interest
Individual differences
Reading readiness and readability
Types of reading texts
Wordless Books
Predictable texts
Controlled High-frequency vocabulary texts
Decodable texts
Authentic literature
Created, easy-to-read texts
Reading Skills and Strategies
A strategy is an individual's approach to a task, including how a student thinks and acts while planning, executing, and evaluating performance in a task and its outcomes.

Previewing
Predicting
Skimming and scanning
Guessing from the context
Paraphrasing

Models of Reading
Bottom-up model

Top-down model

Interactive model
Figure 2.1. Bottom-up model (Nunan 1991)
Figure 2.2. Top - down model (Goodman 1970)
Variables that affect reading process
Reader variables

Text variables

Variables for testing
Reader variables
Schemata and background knowledge (Carrell 1987)
Cultural schema
Formal schemata
Gender
Text variables
Text layout
Text structure
Language of the text
Variables for testing
Method of testing
Language of questions
L2 Reading Strategies and sub-skills
Separability and Hierarchy of Sub-skills
L2 Reading strategies
Five constructs /strategies
Planning and Paying attention
Making inferences
Comprehending
Reflection
The purpose of Assessment and
types of questions
Identifying topic sentence / main idea of the paragraph using skimming
Multiple-choice questions
Inserting the sentence
Matching the words
True / False / Not given statements
The purpose of the study
The individual differences in acquiring the English Language skills are on the increase today (Graddol 2010). Any deficiency in acquiring English language skills would lead to differential success and limited proficiency in language would affect the academic progress, as the language skills form the basis of education.
Significance of Language Skills
The learners' communicative competence is solely dependent on their knowledge of the communicative system, skills and strategies for using language to communicate meaning in concrete situations and ability to vary the use of language forms according to different social circumstances (Chandrakanthi 2003)
Goals of teaching English
The teaching of English at the graduate level is mixed, and multi-cultural classrooms provide opportunities for the learners to enhance their competence level
Role of Reading Comprehension
Comprehension is really a very complex skill. It implies considerable knowledge of the lexicon, grammar, semantics and phonology of the language.
Reading Strategies
A strategy is often defined as an action, or a series of actions, undertaken to accomplish a particular goal. More broadly conceptualized, strategy use includes one's thoughts, as well as actions, during the process of planning and carrying out a task and evaluating one's own performance.
Four categories of strategies
Preparatory / pre-reading strategies
- accessing prior knowledge, purpose, preview and predict

Organizational -
Identifying main ideas, summarizing, and mapping the text structure

Elaborative -
Integrating prior knowledge, inferencing, and explaining

Executive -
Recognizing and correcting comprehension break-downs and deciding how to approach the task.
Assessment of Reading skills
To stimulate the reader's prior knowledge and understanding of the text.

To assess the performance of the respondents in reading comprehension and from the results, bridge the gaps and confusions and guide further learning.
Research Questions
To investigate the relationship of different reading strategies and their use in reading comprehension tests.
Do the different reading strategies influence the performance of male and female students of first year engineering?

To assess the performance level of the learners

To find out whether Male and Female students score differently on different reading comprehension tests.
Significance of the study
(1) Pedagogically, this study helps the teachers of English in an engineering institution to understand the use of reading comprehension strategies and the performance of male and female students.

(2) Empirically, it helps to identify the various factors which impact upon the strategic use in reading tests.

(3) Methodically, it helps to examine the relationship among the strategy use and the reading test performance using visual PLS path modeling and structural equation modeling
Scope of the study
To sensitize the importance of reading skills and make them appear for the standardized exams such as IELTS, TOEFL, SAT, MAT and other competitive exams.

To implement various reading strategies such as planning, paying attention, inference, comprehending and reflecting in any reading context.

To measure the influence of reading strategies and assess the performance of male and female of first year engineering students in reading tests.

General Objectives

To assess the performance of male and female students of first year engineering in reading comprehension tests.

To introduce authentic texts into engineering situation to improve the learner's personal experience as an important factor.

To identify various factors that influence the engineering students' participation and their learning styles.

To understand the realistic principles of classroom learning environment i.e., creating and integrating efficient reading activities at all stages of learning.
Specific Objectives
Objectives of the study
To identify the relationship among the male and female students of first year engineering in their reading performance and in their reading strategy use.

To assess the impact of
planning
as a strategy on reading comprehension tests among the students of first year engineering.

To find out the impact of
paying attention
as a strategy on reading comprehension tests.

To identify the impact of
inference
as a strategy on reading comprehension tests.

To ascertain
comprehending
as an important strategy in reading comprehension tests.

To measure the impact of
reflection
as a strategy on achieving the desired results in reading comprehension tests.
The constructs of reading
The proposed constructs are as follows:

Planning
is what the learner will do when he is given a reading task.

Paying attention
refers to the learner's study of structure of the text especially syntax and lexis, etc.

Inference
is what the learner assumes when he reads the passage and the questions given.

Comprehending
is when the learner understands the very purpose of reading the text through reading and rereading.

Reflecting
is judging how well the learner meets the objectives of the text and on what has been learnt from the text.
Planning
helps the learners in their learning process and monitors their reading comprehension when it is taking place.
Paying attention
helps the learners before they begin to answer the questions and confirm their understanding of the syntax and cohesive devices.
Inference
helps to combine the learners' literal understanding of the text with their own knowledge and intuitions.
Comprehending
requires very rapid and automatic processing of words, strong skills in forming a general meaning representation of main ideas, and efficient coordination of many processes under very limited time constraints.
Reflecting
helps to introspect on the learner's cognitive knowledge i.e., to put what one does and thinks while reading into words and name his/her strategic use but it is more complicated.
General Hypothesis
The proposed hypotheses are as follows:
There will be a mean score difference among the male and female students of first year engineering in their reading and their strategy use.

There will be a mean score difference in the impact of planning as a strategy.

There will be a mean score difference in the impact of paying attention as a strategy.

There will be a mean score difference in the impact of Inference as a strategy.

There will be a mean score difference in the impact of comprehending as a strategy.

There will be a mean score difference in the impact of reflecting as a strategy.
Hypothesis 1 -

Performance of male and female students of first year engineering in their reading tests
The higher the performance level of male and female students' in reading comprehension tests, the more will be the number of methods to measure the influence of reading strategies.
Hypothesis 2 -

Impact of planning as a reading strategy on reading tests
The better the planning, the more will be the achievable scores in reading tests.
Hypothesis 3 -

Impact of paying attention as a reading strategy on reading tests
The more attention of the reader, the higher will be the comprehension score.
Hypothesis 4 -

Impact of inference as a reading strategy on reading tests
The greater the inferential, the better will be the understanding of the text
Hypothesis 5 -

Impact of comprehending as a reading strategy on reading skills
The greater the comprehending ability of the learner, the better will be the performance in reading comprehension
Hypothesis 6 -

Impact of reflecting as a strategy in achieving the desired results on reading comprehension tests
The greater the reflecting practices of learning, the better will be the accuracy in answering the questions
Research Design
Survey Research
A system of collecting data from a population of interests. It tends to be quantitative in nature and aims to collect information from a sample of population such that the results are representative of the population within a certain degree of error.
Research Design
Visual PLS path modeling using SEM for reading strategy use.
One-way ANOVA (SPSS v.16) for measuring the performance of male and female students in reading comprehension tests.
Measurement
Measurement refers to a process during which a set of standardized systems is adopted to describe observed objects or unobserved concepts (Alderson 2010)
Survey Research Instrument: Validity and Reliability
Purification is done by using Corrected Item Total Correlation (CITC) / loading values.

Reliability (
internal
) is tested using Composite Reliability.

Validity (
content
and
construct
) and unidimentionality (CFA) are tested using PLS Path modeling.

Table 3.1. Details of the sample selection
Table 3.2 Descriptions of the questions
Figure 3.2 Research Design
Data Collection Procedure
Reading comprehension passages - 5
Reading strategy use questionnaire (Likert- scale) - 1 after doing all the tasks
Statistical Tools
Partial Least Square (PLS) method of data analysis
A soft modeling technique with no assumptions about the distribution of the data variables and requires very small sample sizes to carry out.
Confirmatory (CFA) vs Exploratory (EFA) factor analysis
In EFA, all variables are considered together and FA algorithm groups highly correlated variables into dimensions.
In CFA, the factor dimensions a priori from the existing literature and preallocate variables to each dimension and test unidimentionality (Average Variance extracted) of the factors.
Path Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling
Path analysis is the analysis of interdependent variables together, for example, x y z.

Structural Equation Modeling is a combination of CFA and Path analysis. It is used to analyze the interdependent relationships between factors and the unidimentionality of factors in one analysis algorithm.
Construct
Construct / Factor / dimension / Latent variable / unobserved variables that are measured using other variables. The values are derived from the measured variables.
Indicator
An indicator is a variable that is actually being measured.
Reliability
A construct is reliable if it measures a dimension the same way every time with minimum variance.
Unidimentionality (Average Variance Extracted)
After the reliability tests, the constructs become purified. The Average variance is extracted is calculated for each construct.
Figure 3.3 Data analysis procedure
Results and Discussion
Hypothesis 1 -

Performance of male and female students of first year engineering in their reading tests
The scores are analyzed using one-way ANOVA (SPSS v.16)
Table 4.1. One-way ANOVA statistical distribution between the performance of male and female students for passage 1
F
(
act
) >
F
(
std
) that is (
7.961
>
3.01
)
Table 4.4 Group Statistical distribution for Passage 1
Table 4.7 One-way ANOVA statistical distribution for Passage 2
Table 4.10 Group statistical distribution for Passage 2
F
(
act
)
<

F
(
std
) that is (
2.322
<
3.01
)
Table 4.13 One - way ANOVA for statistical distribution for Passage 3
F(act)
>
F(std)
that is
(21.198
>
3.01)
Table 4.16 Group statistical distribution for Passage 3
Table 4.19 One-way ANOVA for statistical distribution for Passage 4
F(act)
>
F(std)
that is
(6.963
>
3.01)
Table 4.22 Group statistical distribution for Passage 4
Table 4.25 One-way ANOVA statistical distribution for Passage 5
F(act)
>
F(std)
that is
(17.971
>
3.01)
Table 4.28 Group statistical distribution for Passage 5
Table 4.45 Reliability and AVE of the constructs
Figure 4.1 Strategy use model framework
Figure 4.2 Reading strategy use model validation
Terms used in the model:

Plan1:
Planning,
payatn1:
Paying Attention,
infer1:
Inferencing,
compre1:
Comprehending,
reflec1:
Reflection
Table 4.50 BootStrap Summary
Summary and Conclusions
Need and Significance of the study
Today the teachers of English face the challenges of handling heterogeneous group of learners whose language proficiency is varied.

It is imperative to study the engineering students' reading abilities as the number of students appear for the high-stake tests such as TOEFL and IELTS increasing.
Objectives and Hypothesis of the present study
To identify the relationship among the male and female students of first year engineering in their reading comprehension test performance.

To assess the learners' reading strategy use and the impact of the reading strategies such as Planning, Paying attention, Inference, Comprehending and Reflection
There will be a mean score difference in the performance of male and female students of first year engineering of PSGCT, KCT and SKCET in various reading comprehension passages and their reading strategy use.

There will be a mean score difference in the impact of reading strategies such as Planning, Paying attention, Inference, Comprehending, and Reflection on the performance of the students' reading comprehension tests.
Constructs and Tools used
Planning, Paying attention, Inference, Comprehending, and Reflection were identified as first-order constructs.

Prediction, Background Knowledge, Rereading, Checking comprehension, Summarising, Identifying difficulties, Judging and Reflecting the practices were identified as Second-order / sub-constructs.

Tools such as Visual PLS Path Modeling using SEM, Corrected Item Total Correlation, Average Values extracted / CFA, Composite Reliability, Factor Structure Matrix / EFA, and SPSS (v.16) One-way ANOVA and t-Tests were used.
Data Generation and Analysis
Large Scale Data collection / Survey research design was selected for generating the primary data.

The first year engineering students from PSG College of Technology (89-male; 64-female), Kumaraguru College of Technology (67-male; 72-female) and Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology (42-male; 68-female) were selected as sample for the study.
Five reading comprehension passages (each passage with 30 questions) along with a reading strategy use questionnaire were given.

To assess the performance One-way ANOVA (SPSS v.16) was used to find out the difference between the group and within the group. When the differences are significant Tukey HSD Post Hoc and Independent sample tests (one tail and two-tail t-Tests) were used to confirm the differences.

Visual PLS path modeling using SEM was used to identify the relationship of the constructs used in the form of reading strategies.
Findings of the study
The identified reading strategies greatly influence the overall performance of the students of first year engineering in reading comprehension tests.

The overall performance of female students are better than male students of the selected institutions in reading comprehension tests.

The overall performance of the male and female students of PSGCT is significant in reading comprehension tests. Further, the study confirms that the performance of the students of other two institutions is similar.
Pedagogical Implications
Selection of relevant reading material from technical contexts in a graded manner for reading classes.

Preparation of suitable reading tasks for the selected reading texts considering the importance of strategy use.

Provision of adequate training during the first few weeks to be familiar with reading strategy use and technical vocabulary.

Identification of the learners' proficiency in reading by conducting reading tests at specified intervals as formative assessments.

Implementation of proper remedial measures based on the scores obtained in the formative assessment to enhance their comprehending ability and to attain the required reading efficiency level to cope with the reading at any technical contexts.
List of Publications
International Journal
Sankarakumar, S.,
Chandrakanthi, S. and Malathy, P. "Assessing the Performance of Male and Female students in Reading Tests", European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.84, No.1, pp.22-35, 2012.
National Journal / Books

Sankarakumar, S.,
Chandrakanthi, S. "The Performance of Male and Female students of First Year Engineering in Task-based Reading Tests", National Journal of Technology, Vol.7, No.4, pp.70-73, 2011.

Sankarakumar, S.,
Chandrakanthi, S. "The Performance of Male and Female students of First Year Task-based Reading Tests: a study", In H.S. Chandalia and G.K. Sukhwal (Ed.), Language and Literature Teaching: ELT Across the Borders, First Edn., Creative Books, New Delhi, pp. 202-212, 2010.

Sankarakumar, S.,
Chandrakanthi, S. "The Impact of Background Knowledge on the Performance of Male and Female students in Task-based Reading Tests in Engineering Curriculum: a study", Proceedings of the 4th National Conference on 'Redefining the Role of Language in Higher Education', pp. 117-128, 2009.
Thank you
20 per cent of the first year in-take
References
Ph.D. Public Viva-Voce Examination
Anna University, Chennai - 600 025

Table 4.3 Homogenous subsets among selected institutions and their performance in reading tests - Passage 1
Tukey HSD
a. uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 131.457
Table 4.9 Homogeneous Subsets among the selected institutions and their performance in reading tests - Passage 2
Tukey HSD
a.uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 131.457
Table 4.15 Homogeneous subsets among the selected institutions and their performance in reading tests - Passage 3
Tukey HSD
Table 4.21. Homogeneous subsets among the selected institutions and their performance in reading tests - Passage 4
Tukey HSD
Table 4.27 Homogeneous subsets among the selected institutions and their performance in reading tests - Passage 5
Tukey HSD
Note: *The variables removed in the purification process are shaded.
Table 4.31 Purification of the construct - Planning using CITC
Table 4.32 Purification of the construct - Paying attention using CITC
Table 4.33 Purification of the construct - Inference using CITC
Table 4.34. Purification of the sub- construct - Predicting using CITC
Table 4.35. Purification of the sub- construct - Background Knowledge using CITC
Table 4.36. Purification of the construct - Inference consolidated analysis using CITC
Note: * The variables removed in the purification process are shaded
**Composite reliability for the construct before purification process
Table 4.37. Purification of the sub-construct - Checking comprehension using CITC
Table 4.38. Purification of the sub-construct - Rereading using CITC
Table 4.39. Purification of the construct - Comprehending consolidated analysis using CITC
Note: * The variables removed in the purification process are shaded
**Composite reliability for the construct before purification process
Table 4.40. Purification of the sub-construct - Summarising using CITC
Table 4.41. Purification of the sub-construct - Identifying difficulties using CITC
Table 4.42. Purification of the sub-construct Judging how well objectives are met using CITC
Table 4.43. Purification of the sub-construct - Reflecting the practices using CITC
Table 4.44. Purification of the construct - Reflecting consolidated analysis using CITC
Questions?
Figure 3.1. Framework for the constructs of reading strategies
Full transcript