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WH Unit 5: Isms
Transcript of WH Unit 5: Isms
Before the Revolution . . .
Landowners buy common land and "enclose" with fences or hedges.
Experimented with seeding and harvesting methods for greater yields.
1. New methods tried & developed
2. Many small farmers gave up farming.
To grow a crop . . .
Seeds were scattered in small plot.
WASTEFUL -- Plant may never produce
TIME CONSUMING: Handle the plant twice
NEW Agricultural Device
1701: Jethro Tull perfects Seed Drill.
Seed drill plants in rows,
to a specific depth.
The Old Way of Textiles
The "Putting Out" System
Sorts, cards, spins, & weaves wool
Family Enterprise: Wife & children help
Cleans, bleaches, raises the nap
Crops, and stretches cloth
Dyes the wool
Carries finished cloth to trade fair.
Sells cloth to customer
Do we need a change??
Industrialization: The process of developing machine production of goods.
Factors of Production:
Resources needed to produce goods and services
Industrialization Starts in Britain
Britain has 3 key elements:
Large population of workers
Highly developed banking system
Abundant natural resources:
Water & Coal (for power)
Iron Ore (to build machines)
Rivers (Inland transportation)
Harbors (merchant ships)
Designed by John Kay in 1733
DOUBLES the production of weavers
Rollers allow device to MOVE without being hand-fed.
Designed by James Hargreaves in 1764
One spinner can work EIGHT threads.
Inventions in Textiles
Richard Arkwright devised the water frame.
Used waterpower to power spinning wheels.
Developed by Edmund Cartwright in 1787.
A steam-driven mechanical loom
Speeds up weaving process
British workers in key industries will NOT be allowed out of England.
Britain will hold onto the secrets of industrialization as long as possible.
WHY do they want to do this????
Created by Eli Whitney in 1793
Removed the seeds from cotton.
MUCH faster than humans --
Growing cotton now VERY profitable!!!
Slavery in America GROWS
1765: James Watt developed the first efficient steam engine
1807: Robert Fulton -- first successful voyage of a steamboat.
British build canals for inland transportation of goods and materials.
4,250 miles of canals cross Britain.
Improvements in Transportation
Early 1800s: John MacAdam develops method to improve roads.
Large stones on side for drainage.
Crushed rock on the road.
Wagons can now travel without sinking in mud.
Known as "macadam" roads
1804: Richard Trevithick
Effects of Railroads:
1. Cheap transport for industry
2. Created new jobs (railroads & mines)
3. Increased market for agricultural & fishing products
4. Encouraged travel (city to country; country to city)
Built first steam-driven locomotive
Industrialization begins in textiles:
Concentrated in Northeast
Industrialization BOOMS after Civil War
Wealth of natural resources
Inventions (light bulb, telephone)
Large urban population
1813: Francis Cabot Lowell and four investors mechanized every stage of cloth manufacture
*The Lowell Model:
*Textile mill that employs single women.
Typical worker is from a rural area.
Women have some independence, but are watched closely to maintain proper behavior.
Housed in dormitories.
Work 12 hour days, six days a week
Later US Expansion
Early 1800s: Northeast has industrial growth
US mainly agricultural through 1865.
Late 1800s: Technological boom --– US has the resources AND electric light bulb and telephone AND growing urban population.
Railroads are a factor in growth especially in western cities (Chicago, Minneapolis, Kansas City)
Belgium: First European nation outside Britain to industrialize.
Germany: Develops in pockets
Due to available resources
France: More controlled growth of industrialization
Farming is NOT abandoned.
Industrialization Throughout Europe
Who Doesn't Industrialize???
Spain: Lacks good roads or waterways for transportation
Austria-Hungary: Mountain ranges don't allow for railroad building.
In other countries the social structure will delay adoption of industrialized methods.
They will fall & be left behind.
Industrialization increased differences between industrialized and unindustrialized countries.
Provide raw materials for industrialized countries’ factories.
Buy manufactured goods from industrialized countries.
To gain access to cheap raw materials industrialized nations seize control of colonies.
Gives more power and wealth to the economically powerful countries.
Asia & Africa are still agricultural and "fall behind" Europe, the United States, & Russia.
Industrialization Changes Life
England has a RURAL population
1800: Population shifts to cities
Cities arise around factory centers.
Factories are built close to energy source.
Certain areas are "magnets" for the new factories.
Life in the City
Cities grow rapidly
No development plans, building codes, or sanitation codes.
- Houses are built anywhere and are extremely overcrowded.
- Cities are dirty, smelly, and unhealthy (disease was rampant)
English working-class life expectancy in 1842:
City-dweller: 17 years
Rural area: 38 years
14 hours a day, six days a week.
Change from farm life -- no down time and no change in job.
Factories mostly poorly lit and dirty.
Accidents happen frequently
Especially in coal mines.
Life expectancy for coal workers -- 10 years less.
Women and children = cheap labor, Used frequently.
New Rules --
1819 Factory Act: To improve conditions
All factory owners must obey law
Mill owners must attend to infectious disease.
Factory rooms: well ventilated & lime-washed twice a year.
Children given two sets of clothing
9-13: Maximum 8 hours a day
14-18: Maximum 12 hours a day
Children's work hours: 6am-9pm, no more than 12 hours.
Under 9: Must attend school established by factory owner.
First four years of work, children receive instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic
Male and female children in separate sleeping quarters.
Children may not sleep more then 2 per bed
Sundays: one hour of Christian instruction for children.
No established group for enforcement.
No oversight to require compliance.
Largely ignored by factories, but created precedent for later acts.
Philosophers of Industrialization
Capitalism: An economic system in which industry is privately owned and money is invested to make a profit.
Laissez-faire economics: Policy that advocates a free market unregulated by the government.
Policy of let it be –-- economy will fix itself.
Advocated for free trade for economies to prosper.
Adam Smith: Advocate for laissez-faire
Three laws of economics:
(People work for their own good)
(Competition forces better products)
Supply & Demand
(Enough goods produced at the lowest price to meet demand in a market economy)
Population grows faster than food supply
Wars and epidemics are needed to maintain balance between people and food.
Many people destined to be poor.
Utilitarianism: A belief that people should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their usefulness.
People should be able to pursue their goals without interference from the government.
Favored cooperative agriculture
Favored women’s rights.
Push for educational and legal reforms
Socialism: Industry is owned by the public and operates for the welfare of all.
Argued that socialism would end poverty
and promote equality.
Believed these changes would help workers.
Karl Marx & Frederic Engels promote radical socialism in The Communist Manifesto (1848)
Human societies divided into warring classes: "haves" employers and "have-nots" workers.
Predicts that the workers will overthrow the owners.
Future According to Marx:
Capitalism would drive out artisans and small group of manufacturers control all wealth.
Workers would revolt, seize factories, and produce the needed goods.
Under this system economic equality for all.
State would die and be replaced by a classless society.
Communism: Complete socialism,
all industry owned by the people.
The Manifesto has little effect at its time of publication. Does not become relevant until early 1900s.
Marx dies in 1883.
Voluntary labor associations
Unions work for better pay and working conditions for the workers.
Initially were illegal seen as a threat to
social order and stability.
Regulate industry practices.
Establish laws to limit then outlaw child labor
Establish maximum hours for daily labor.
Unions push for child labor laws - child labor
lowers wages for all workers.
Abolition of Slavery
Congress of Vienna
Political situation . . . Napoleon exiled
Europe wants peace & stability.
Congress of Vienna: A series of meetings to set up policies to create a secure and stable Europe after the fall of Napoleon.
Scheduled to last four weeks – went on for eight months
The Five "Great Powers"
(Austria, Prussia, Russia, England & France)
have the most power.
Small countries attend but have little voice.
Most influential representative:
Klemens von Metternich
Distrusted ideals of French Revolution.
Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (France)
Tsar Nicholas I (Russia)
Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austria)
Viscount Castlereagh (Britain)
King William Frederick III (Prussia)
Metternich's Three Goals:
-Prevent future French aggression
-Restore a balance of power.
Goal 1: Containment of France --
Strengthen countries around France
Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic united as Kingdom of the Netherlands.
German Confederation created – 39 German states loosely joined, headed by Austria.
Switzerland is independent.
Kingdom of Sardinia given Piedmont, Savoy, Nice, and Genoa.
Goal 2: Balance of Power --
France remains a major power with diminished influence.
If France is greatly weakened they can be threatened by neighbors.
Too drastic punishment, France might seek revenge.
Goal 3: Legitimacy --
Old ruling families should be returned to power.
Monarchs returned to thrones in France, Spain, and some Italian and German states.
Monarchs would stabilize European political relations.
Congress of Vienna is a political triumph.
Created a lasting peace of over 40 years.
An entire continent cooperated.
No country was left out of negotiations.
Did not sow the seeds of future war.
Congress of Vienna is a victory for conservatives – monarchy is returned to power.
Britain and France: constitutional monarchies
Russia, Prussia, and Austria: absolute monarchies.
Legacy of the Congress of Vienna
1. Balance of power
3. Spanish colonies throw off Spanish rule.
OLD WAY . . .
Enclosed English fields
Pull-rope for shuttle
Early 1800s: Three views of government
Conservative: Protect monarchy
Liberal: More power to parliaments
Radical: Drastic change - democracy to all
Nationalism will upset the balance of power created by the Congress of Vienna.
Nationalism: the belief that people should be loyal to their nation - people who share a common culture & history.
-Loyalty should not be to a king or empire.
-Blurs the lines that separate the political theories
Nation-state: a nation with its own independent government (protects the nation's territory & way of life)
Europe 1815: Only Britain, France, & Spain are nation-states.
Nationalism supported by liberals & radicals.
*Three Types of Nationalism
Merger of politically divided but culturally similar lands
Culturally distinct group resists being added to a state or tries to break away
Culturally distinct groups form into a new state by accepting a single culture
1821: Greeks rebel against Ottoman Turks
First European people to win self-rule
1830: Britain, Russia, & France sign treat to keep Greece independent.
Popular world-wide: Christian versus Muslim
1827: Battle of Navarino - British, Russian, and French navies defeat the Ottomans
The United States
Piedmont-Sardinia largest & most powerful
1848: Adopted liberal constitution
1858: Seizes land from Austria.
Southern states unite with Piedmont-Sardinia
Prussia leads German unification
Prussia mainly German
Nationalism unifies Prussia
Prussia has most powerful army.
Otto von Bismark (Conservative Prime Minister)
Adopts policy of "blood and iron"
1866: Austria declares war on Prussia
Prussians have superior equipment and training –- it’s a rout.
Austrians lose Venetia to Italy.
Prussia takes control of Northern Germany.
Eastern and Western Prussia are now joined.
1867: North German Confederation created, dominated by Prussia
Bismark wants southern German states to unite with Prussia Catholic -- they resist.
Bismark creates a situation (war) with France.
July 19, 1870: Prussia declares war on France.
September 1870: French surrender
German unification is complete.
Southern Germans accept Prussian rule -- protection.
Prussia showed it's more powerful.
1848 Revolutions - Ethnic uprisings in Europe
Ethnic minorities push for self-rule
Mob violence in Vienna
Budapest: Self-government for Hungary
Prague: Czechs demand Bohemian independence.
Revolutionaries fail to unite themselves or their nations.
Conservatism returns by 1849.
People of the Austrian Empire:
Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs, and Italians.
Empire breaks up after World War I.
The Russian Empire Crumbles
People of the Russian Empire:
Ukrainians, Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Georgians, Armenians, and Turks.
Czarist empire collapses during World War I and Communists takeover.
Russia enforces Russification, forcing Russian culture on all the ethnic groups in the empire.
Backfires …strengthens nationalist feeling.
The Ottoman Empire Weakens
People of the Ottoman Empire: Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, and Armenians.
Empire breaks up after World War I.
France somewhere in the middle.
Russia & Austria trailing far behind.
1871: Britain and Germany are the most powerful in Europe.
People from ALL over the world have "meshed" into the American identity
Culturally Distinct = Different Peoples
Single Culture = American
Prussia defeats Austria in Austro-Prussian War. Claims 21 of German states.
Hungarians push for separation - …Emperor Francis Joseph splits empire in half– he rules both Austria and Hungary.
Hungary largest part --
New Empire: Austria-Hungary
1856: Ottomans grant equal citizenship to all people under their rule.
Portion lost after Greek revolt
Part of 1848
Seven Weeks’ War
French surrender ceremony
Does this room look familiar??
Blood & Iron:
Jacob & Wilhelm (German brothers)
What do these stories have in common??
Hansel & Gretel
Traveled throughout German states
Collected folktales of the people
Wanted to show the "connection" because the stories were similar over hundreds of miles.
When we left Africa . . .
Up to the 1800s, Africa was controlled by the Africans.
European control of Africa = 10%, only on coasts
African traveler, David Livingstone most well-known European explorer
"Disappeared" into Africa . . . great mystery
American Reporter Henry Stanley sent to search for Livingstone -- and he finds him.
Stanley's famous line: "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially.
Europe and America will follow this policy to dominate Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Forces Driving Imperialism
Maxim Gun: first automatic machine gun
Steam Engine allows for transportation
Quinine to prevent malaria
Belief in European Superiority
Europeans believe they are better than other people, basic racism.
Social Darwinism: The fittest had the most wealth.
A corruption of Darwin's theory of evolution
Want to “tame the natives” -- civilize
King Leopold II of Belgium hires Stanley to secure agreements from the Congolese tribes for total control of the Congo.
European countries expanding into Africa.
Finding gold, diamonds, and other resources. . .
Everyone wants a piece.
To prevent a European war over the African lands, 14 European nations meet in Berlin in 1884-5
Decide how to divide Africa.
Create TWO rules.
1. Any European country could claim land by notifying the other European nations.
2. The country must show it can control the area.
Scramble for Africa is on . . .
Stanley remains in Africa to explore the Congo River.
After locating Livingstone, Stanley is known world-wide.
Stanley uses promises, threats, and tricks.
Stanley gets the agreements.
This is NOT Belgium -- this is Leopold operating as an individual citizen.
Leopold claims to want to spread Christianity.
Leopold really wants to exploit the region for its resources, especially the rubber.
Named the Congo Free State and controlled by Leopold’s personal army.
Deaths under Leopold are estimated at 10 million.
Harvesting rubber is labor intensive
The Congolese will be forced to work, for pay, but are subject to brutal treatment.
Whippings, amputations, and mutilations were common punishment for failure to meet quotas.
Congolese will flee when possible
Belgium seizes the Congo from Leopold in 1908, due to his insane treatment of the people.
Leopold has free rein until news of the Congolese treatment reaches the world.
Many groups resisted, but European weaponry stopped any revolts.
1905 - 1907: Maji Maji Revolt in German East Africa (Tanzania).
Most well-known battle: Africans sprinkle “magic water” on their bodies
Africans attack Germans with spears
Germans respond with machine guns --– over 5,000 die
German soldiers were asked why they kept shooting the Africans.
The Answer: They kept coming
End of revolt: 75,000 -– 350,000 natives dead.
1914: Only TWO African countries remain independent --– Liberia and Ethiopia
Liberia is not completely independent due to the sphere of influence from the United States
1896: Ethiopia goes to war against and defeats Italy.
Keeps its independence
Only African nation to successfully resist Europeans.
Menelik II plays Italy, France, and Britain against each other to gain time.
Buys new weapons from France & Russia.
Signs a treaty with Italy as a protectorate -– thought they were cheated.
Legacy of Colonial Rule
-Reduced local warfare (natives unite to fight the Europeans)
-Improved sanitation, new schools and hospitals
-Life spans and literacy rates increase
-Africans lose control of land.
-Tension between tribes
-Population loss in resistance
-Loss of traditional culture
-Division of the continent
Europe and Africa had been in contact for hundreds of years.
Africa was one-third of the Triangular Trade.
What was the most valuable item of the Triangular Trade Route?
Reasons Europeans did NOT dominate Africa:
1. Powerful African armies.
2. African rivers difficult to navigate.
3. Diseases Europeans had no exposure to
Europeans who enter the interior were explorers, missionaries, or humanitarians opposed to the slave trade.
The Division of Africa
WHO IS NOT INVITED??? . . . ANY AFRICANS!!!
Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway, Turkey, and the United States of America.
France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major players in the conference, controlling most of colonial Africa at the time.
Result of Conference
European influence in Africa BEFORE the Berlin Conference
European control of Africa AFTER the Berlin Conference
Is this cartoon an accurate description??
The prime example of the excesses of imperialism
Livingstone refuses to come back to "civilization" & will die in Africa
"Tricks": Shoots a gun, sets fire to gunpowder.
Stanley seen as a man of "great power"
Amputation -- NO HANDS!!
Were the gains worth it?
Imperialism Review Questions
1. What were the reasons the Europeans were unable to dominate in Africa prior to 1800?
2. What three new advances allowed the Europeans to dominate the Africans after 1800?
3. What event occurred (in Europe) that allowed for European domination throughout Africa & Asia?
4. How did Darwin's idea of survival of the fittest tie in with Europe's idea of superiority?
5. Do you think the cartoon in Slide 147 is an accurate representation of the situation in Africa?
6. What was different about the conquest of Congo in the beginning?
7. Why were efforts by the Africans to resist European control not effective?
8. What two countries remained independent in Africa?
9. Which negative effect of colonial rule do you think was the worst effect? Explain your answer.
10. Which positive effect of colonial rule do you think was the best effect? Explain your answer.