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Q1 Benchmark Exam Review

Cells
by

Jennifer Hand

on 28 October 2012

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Transcript of Q1 Benchmark Exam Review

Cells Q1 Benchmark Review SB1a. Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including the cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis. The Basic Unit of Life Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes *Single Celled/Unicelluar
*NO membrane bound organelles
*NO membrane bound nucleus,DNA floats free in cytoplasm.
*Include ONLY Bacteria (Eubacteria/Archeabacteria) Prokaryotes Structures GPS-SB1. Students will analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells. *Unicellular & Multicelluar
*CONTAIN membrane bound organelles
*Examples: Animals, Plants, Protists & Fungi Eukaryotes Animals and plants share many organelles,
but there are some key differences:
*centrioles are only found in animal cells
*plants have cell walls, chloroplasts, and a large central vacuole, animal cells do not Structures Video Review Q1 Benchmark Prezi Quiz 1 – SB1a - Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
1. Why are cells small?
 
2. What are the differences between optical and electron microscopes?
Optical –
Electron –
 
3. Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes lack a membrane bound nucleus?

4. What type of organisms have prokaryotic cells? Eukaryotic cells?

5. Are prokaryotes smaller or larger than eukaryotes?

6. What 4 major things do prokaryotes and eukaryotes have in common?

7. Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles?

8. Which structures do plant cells have that animal cells lack? In the Venn Diagram below, list the structures that prokaryotes and eukaryotes share under BOTH and list the types of organisms and structures specific to each under either prokaryote or eukaryote: DNA, Cytoplasm/Cytosol, Cell Membrane, Ribosomes, Nucleus, Mitochondria, Lysosomes, Golgi, Smooth ER, Rough ER, Vesicles, Bacteria, Archaea, Protists, Fungi, Plants , Animals List the major functions of the organelles in a eukaryotic cell below? Quiz Cool Cell Size Animation http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/scale/ http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=ap1101 Cell Membrane Animation and Quiz Membrane Structure
*Found in ALL cells
*Selectively Permeable
*Regulates what enters and exits cells to maintain homeostasis (balance)
*Called a Fluid Mosaic Model Cell/Plasma Membrane Cell Membrane Video Phosphate 2 fatty acid tails glycerol Enzymes SB1b. Explain how enzymes function as catalysts ( a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being used up/consumed in the reaction).
*SOME WORK AT SPEEDS OF 40 MILLION REACTIONS PER SECOND!!! Structure & Function *Enzymes:
-are proteins that lower activation energy of reactions
-are catalysts that speed up reactions...the higher the concentration of enzymes the faster the rate (think about how the # of cash registers open at walmart affects how fast line moves)
-are lock & key, bind to specific substrates
-require correct pH and temperature to function properly...will change shape and become denatured without correct pH and temp.
-can be used over and over...are not used up in reactions.
-end in "ase" (amylase, catalase, lactase) Video Enzymes and Energy Reaction WITHOUT Enzymes Reaction WITH Enzymes It takes LESS energy to turn reactants/substrates into products
when enzymes are present! Quiz
True or False? 1.Enzymes speed up reaction rate.
2.Enzymes can only bind to specific substrates.
3.Enzymes require correct ph & Temp?
4.Enzymes can be used more than once.
5.Enzymes end in "ose"
6.Enzymes increase reaction energy.
7.Enzymes are a type of carbohydrate. Key: 1-4 TRUE, 5-7 FALSE Enzymes and pH Different enzymes require different pHs to function. When the pH is correct/optimal, enzyme activity is high because the shape of the enzyme fits the substrate. When the pH is not optimal, enzyme activity is lowered because the enzyme shape is changed (denatured) and the substrate can no longer fit on the enzymes active site for the reaction to take place.

*The pH in our mouths is 7. Amylase is an enzyme found in saliva in our mouths that breaks down starches. Our stomachs have a pH of 2. Pepsin is an enzyme that breaks down proteins in our stomachs. Notice how the optimal pH for Amylase and Pepsin differ in the graph below! When we swallow amylase in our saliva, does it continue to break down starches in our stomachs? Why or Why not? Enzymes and Temperature Enzymes require specific temperatures to function. Enzymes become denatured (or change shape) in the wrong temperature. This prevents the substrate from being able to bind to the enzymes active site to make products. *Can you think of an organism that may contain enzymes that work best at cold temperatures?

*What would the relationship be among having a fever, lack of energy, and enzymes? SB1c. Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins,
lipids, nucleic acids). ALL CONTAIN CARBON:) Organic Macromolecules SB1d. Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e., osmosis, diffusion). Water Properties of Water Video Review *Diffusion-Movement of Molecules from HIGH to LOW Concentration
*Osmosis - Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Active vs Passive
Transport Osmosis & Cells Polarity Unequal sharing of electrons between Hydrogen and Oxygen leads to water having a Positive End and a Negative End called Poles. In a sense, it makes water behave like mini-magnets and gives water special properties that make life as we know it possible:) Water...
the Universal Solvent *Because of its polarity, water is able to dissolve substances so they can be
transported in our bodies to where they are needed.
*For example, when salt (NaCL) is added to water(H2O) it dissolves because the O-
end of water is attracted to Na+ and the H+ end of water is attracted to CL- . Other examples may include hydrolysis of proteins to amino acids or starches into simple sugars. In the diagram, water molecules are the big red dots (O-) with attached white dots (H+) Notice how how water
molecules separate
Na+ from Cl- to dissolve it! Cohesion vs Adhesion High Specific Heat Less Dense as a Solid Water resists rapid changes in temperature because of the hydrogen bonding between water molecules as a result of its polarity. Remember...water molecules are sort of like little magnets and are attracted to each other.

Energy is required to break apart these "magnetic" hydrogen bonds before water molecules are able to heat up, spread out, diffuse, and evaporate. So.... it takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of water which helps regulate extreme temperature changes in the environment. *Don't forget...organisms must have the
correct temperature for enzymes to function...AND...organisms like us are
over 60% water.....SO...water helps regulate
our temperature so our enzymes can work
to carry out reactions in our bodies:)

*Adhesion involves the attraction of water molecules to other substances because of a greater force of attraction. *Cohesion involves attraction of water molecules to other water molecules because of its polarity. Cohesion Adhesion BOTH Water is more attracted to the sides of the graduated cylinder than it is to itself so it "climbs" up. Creates surface tension allowing insects and
small objects to skim on top of water. Also explains why water beads up...it is more attracted to itself than what it is on. Because of its polarity, as water turns from a liquid to a solid, it becomes less dense...this means ice floats, making organisms that live in lakes and oceans very happy:) Why? Because water expands when it turns to ice, bottles filled with water in the freezer will burst. In nature, the expanding of water as it freezes in the cracks of rocks contributes to erosion which helps create soil and the cycling of nutrients into the ecosystem. Quiz Movement of water into and out of cells depends on the concentration gradient
or difference in the concentration of solutes on either side of the cell membrane. As a result of osmosis, Water moves from high to low concentration. Hypertonic = Higher Solutes
Isotonic = Equal Solutes
Hypotonic = Lower Solutes Animal Cells in Hypertonic Solutions shrink.
Animal Cells in Isotonic Solutions remain the same.
Animal Cells in Hypotonic solutions expand and
may possibly lyse(burst). Isotonic is best for animal cells. Similar events happen in plant cells, but the cell wall prevents the plant cell from lysing/bursting...AND... Hypotonic is best for plants. Why? Plants need turgor pressure to push on the cell walls to provide support to the plant...they do not have skeletons for support. This is why plants that are wilted or limp stand up after being watered:) *Notice the NUCLEUS & MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES IN EACH TYPE OF EUKARYOTIC CELL!!! *Nucleoid is made of free floating DNA & is NOT membrane bound. *Ribosomes are organelles, but they are NOT membrane bound. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids *ENERGY -Sugars & Starches
*Also used to make plant cell walls (Cellulose) and DNA nucleotides)
*Contain C,H, & O
*end in -ose
*4 calories per gram Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides *Formula - C6H12O6
*Examples - Glucose & Fructose
*Small enough to pass through cell membrane when cells need energy. *Formula - C12H22O11
*Examples - Sucrose & Lactose
*Must be broken down by hydrolysis & enzymes into monosaccharides to pass through cell membrane to be used as energy. People that are lactose intolerant have enzymes that do not function properly so they are not able to break down lactose found in milk/dairy products! Sucrose is common table sugar! *Formula - C?H?0? Number depends on size of starch.
*Examples - Starch, Cellulose (plant cell walls/fiber), Glycogen (animals)
*Must be broken down by hydrolysis & enzymes into monosaccharides to pass through cell membranes for energy. Hydroysis &
Dehydration Synthesis http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat/dehydrat.html *Each of the 4 major macromolecules is a polymer made of monomers. Carbs are polymers made of monosaccharide monomers, lipids are polymers made of fatty acids monomers, proteins are polymers made of amino acids monomers, and nucleic acids are polymers made of nucleotide monomers.

*Depending on the needs of our bodies, the polymers are either broken down by hydrolysis (with water) in the presence of enzymes OR the monomers are linked together in the presence of enzymes by dehydration synthesis.

*Example - When you need energy, polysaccharides are broken down by hydrolysis using enzymes into monosaccharides so they are small enough to be absorbed by cells. If cells are not in need of energy, monosaccharides are linked together by dehydration synthesis to make them too large for cells to absorb so they can be stored for later use. Animation - Hydrolysis & Dehydration Synthesis *Long Term Energy Storage/Protection & Insulation of Organs - EX: Triglycerides
*Makeup of Cell Membranes - Phospholipids & Cholesterol
*Contain C, H, & O, but less O than carbs
*9 calories per gram Triglycerides *made of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol
*Can be saturated OR unsaturated
*Saturated - all carbon-carbon single bonds, solid at room temperature, can be unhealthy and can cause heart disease.
*Unsaturated - contain carbon=carbon double bonds, are liquid at room temp, and are healthier. FATS - OILS - WAXES - CHOLESTEROL Is this triglyceride Saturated or Unsaturated? Fatty Acids --> Phospholipids
& Cholesterol *Phospholipids form a bilayer because the polar phosphate heads are attracted to water and the lipid tails are not, creating a membrane that separates the inside of the cell from the environment.
*Cholesterol stabilizes and strengthens the membrane. Phospholipid Cholesterol Beginnings of a Phospholipid Bilayer Notice that Proteins are also a MAJOR component of the cell membrane...but proteins are a separate macromolecule and will be discussed in another section. MacromoleculeVideo Review *Structural Proteins include muscles, tissues, etc.
*Functional Proteins include hormones, antibodies, enzymes, channel and receptor proteins in cell membranes, etc.
*ALL proteins are made of AMINO ACIDS...we require 20 different kinds of amino acids.
*The number and sequence of amino acids determines the type of protein that will be formed....very similar to the way all the words we use are made from the 26 letters in the alphabet. (DNA "tells" the amino acids the order they need to get in to form the protein your body needs at a particular time...we will cover DNA later:)
*Contain C, H, O, N, S
*4 calories per gram...our body will only use protein for energy after using all available carbs and lipids.
*Formed by dehyration synthesis and broken down by hydrolysis. Protein Formation Amino Acids Structure Examples of 4 of the 20 different Amino Acids Carbon is GREAT backbone molecule and helps form a wide variety of molecules because it can form up to 4 separate bonds which allows it to form chains, branches, and rings. *Examples: DNA & RNA
*DNA stores genetic information to build proteins
*RNA helps translate the information in DNA into proteins. *Passive Transport: NO ENERGY - molecules are moving DOWN a concentration gradient from HIGH to LOW concentration.
Examples - Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis.

*Active Transport: REQUIRES ENERGY - molecules are moving AGAINST a concentration gradient from LOW to HIGH concentration.
Examples - Endocytosis, Exocytosis, & the Sodium Potassium Pump. Facilitated Diffusion True/False 1-10 Short Answer 11-12
1. Water is polar because of the unequal sharing of electrons between hydrogen and oxygen,
2. Hydrogen bonds are weak bonds that from between water molecules because of polarity.
3. Water is not a good solvent.
4. Water is not able to resist changes in temperature because of its polarity.
5. Ice is able to float because liquid water is less dense than the ice.
6. Animal cells will burst or "lyse" in a hypertonic solution.
7. Plasmolysis in plants cells takes place in hypotonic environments.
8. Tugor pressure increases inside plant cells in hypotonic environments.
9. Movement down a concentration gradient involves passive transport.
10. Endocytosis and facilitated diffusion require energy.
11. Explain what would happen to your cells if you were stranded in a raft in the ocean and you drank the ocean.
12. Explain why a unicellular animal like protist that lives in freshwater would need to have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that pump water? KEY: 1T, 2T, 3F, 4F, 5F, 6F, 7F, 8T, 9T, 10F 11. The ocean water would surround your cells with a hypertonic solution causing the water in your cells to move out leading to dehydration.
12. A protist in freshwater is surrounded by a hypotonic environment so water is constantly moving into its body by osmosis. Since it is animal like, it does not have a cell wall to keep it from bursting/lysing, so it has contractile vacuoles to pump out the excess water to keep it from bursting/lysing. CELL THEORY:
1)All life forms are made from one or more cells.
2)Cells only arise from pre-existing cells.
3)The cell carries out life's activities. For fast & efficient exchange of nutrients and wastes Use light, can view living as well as dead specimens Use electrons & magnets, can only view dead specimens,
HUGE magnification power Prokaryotes Prokaryotes - Bacteria & Archea (also called Archeabacteria)
Eukaryotes - every living thing that is NOT a bacteria Much SMALLER Cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA Eukaryotes Cell Wall made of cellulose, large permanent central vacuole, plastids such as chloroplasts Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm/sol
Ribosomes
DNA Nucleus
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Golgi
Smooth ER
Rough ER
Vesicles Bacteria
Archaea Protists
Fungi
Plants
Animals NOTICE THAT EUKARYOTES ARE MUCH MORE COMPLEX AND ARE FOUND IN MANY MORE LIVING THINGS THAN PROKARYOTES. Cell Reproduction SB1a. Explain the role of cell organelles in cell reproduction. Cytokinesis Cell Cycle *Cells spend the greatest amount of time in Interphase because this is the cell "LIVING" its life! *In unicellular and some multicelluar organisms, Mitosis serves as asexual reproduction. *In all multicellular organisms, Mitosis serves to help the organism make new cells for growth, repair/replacement, and development. *Some cells, such as skin cells, undergo Mitosis frequently,
while other cells such as liver cells do not.
WHY? Skin cells are outside of our bodies and are constantly rubbing against things, but our liver cells are internal and protected. Mitosis as Asexual Reproduction Unicellular Bacteria/Prokaryote
(BINARY FISSION) Unicellular Protist/Eukaryote Multicellular Eukaryotes Mitosis for Growth, Development & Repair Cell Cycle Video Multicellular Eukaryotes Cancer
Uncontrolled Cell Division/Mitosis *The uncontrolled cell growth results when DNA is damaged/mutated which can lead to a tumor.
Benign Tumors - are NOT cancerous, do not move to other parts of the body, and can often be removed.
Malignant Tumors - are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body by metastasis.
*Carcinogens are substances that damage/mutate DNA that leads to cancer.
Examples: chemicals, uv radiation, viruses Apoptosis is programmed cell death. This process occurs to protect your body from damaged cells forming tumors. If apoptosis does not occur to damaged cells, the damaged cells divide uncontrollably which may lead to the formation of tumors. Why are Cells small? *Small cells have a greater surface area to volume ration than larger cells.
*The larger the ratio, the faster molecules can move into and out of cells to maintain homeostasis. This video is a
variation of
the lab we did
in class:) Think about how fast ALL the reactions happen in your body such as breaking down glucose to make ATP, the production of enzymes and the jobs they perform, etc:) Remember that our cells are able to break down 40 million hydrogen peroxide molecules per second with the catalase enzyme! Check out the cell signaling video and think about how fast you can think and respond!!! ALL BECAUSE OF YOUR 100 TRILLION CELLS ABILITY TO QUICKLY COMMUNICATE BECAUSE OF THEIR SMAAAALLL SIZE!!!! Quiz 1. What happens during G1, s, & G2 if Interphase?
2. What are the 4 major phases of mitosis and what happens during each phase?
3.What cytokinesis?
4. When/why do cells undergo mitosis?
5. How are the terms DNA, chromatin, chromosomes, and chromatids related?
6. How do the daughter cells that form as a result of mitosis compare to the original/parent cell?
7.why is mitosis at times considered asexual reproduction?
8. What is the relationship between binary fission, budding, and fragmentation?
9. What is cancer?
10. How do benign and malignant tumors compare?
11. What is metastatsis? Apoptosis?
12. What are carcinogens? Examples?
13. Why are cells small?
14. How does the surface area to volume ratio compare in large cells vs. small cells?
15. If we all started as a single celled zygote, how did we grow into over 100 trillion cells including over 200 types?
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