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Copy of Copy of Kelp forests
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Kelp forests
Presidential Decree No. 705
“Revising presidential decree no. 389, otherwise known as the Forestry Reform Code of the Philippines”, a watershed and a watershed reservation are defined as the following: The concentric expansion of human population in Metro Manila affected the La Mesa Watershed. The recurring water shortage in Metro Manila has been the primary concern of the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) which was aggravated by the severe droughts starting in the late 1980’s. Also, the high percentage of losses through leaks, improper use of facilities, and thefts compounded the situation. Likewise, many of the unemployed flocked into the watershed converting a sizable area into croplands. We’ve learned that the La Mesa Watershed and Eco-Park consists of the La Mesa Dam and an ecological nature reserve site in Quezon City . The water collected in the reservoir is treated on-site by the Maynilad Water Services, and at the Balara Treatment Plant further south by the Manila Water. Both water companies are private concessionaires awarded by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System, the government agency in charge of water supply. It is a vital link to the water requirements of 12 million residents of Metro Manila considering that 1.5 million liters of water pass through this reservoir every day. It is also the last forest of its size in the metropolis. We’ve learned that just by visiting La Mesa Eco Park, we are already actively participating in saving La Mesa Watershed, since the revenues generated by the Eco Park is for the “Save La Mesa Watershed” project. We encourage our fellow classmates and other students to visit the park, because even in this very simple ways, we believe that we can do something to help save the watershed,to save our Mother Nature. Beware! Watch out for falling branches.
Do your part to keep wildlife wild! Enjoy wildlife from a safe distance and do not approach wild animals and lastly,
Try to minimize your impact on nature! That's all! :) Kelps forests are unstable ecosystems There are a few extrinsic factors that can affect its equilibrium: Currents Nutrients Temperature Storms In fact, they provide the cool, nutrient-rich waters that are essential for the plants’ life. Currents play a vital role in kelp forests ecosystems. The nutrients concentration is basic for the growth and development of kelps They need primarily nitrogen and phosphorus which act as fertilizers They stimulate rapid growth of the kelp, at rates of up to 50 cm per day and 25 m in just four months.
This is the fastest growth rate ever measured in the plant kingdom! Kelps grow predominantly in waters cooler than 20°C and are absent in warmer waters As kelps do not have strong roots that anchor them to the substrate,
they are subject to the frequency of storm events. Storms can often eradicate entire kelp forests destroying shelters and habitats where all the organisms of this ecosystem hide and live In short, in order to survive, develop and reach huge colonies that can be called actual forests, kelps need
five main environmental characteristics: Hard surface for attachment High nutrient concentration Moderate water motion Clear water (photosynthesis) Cool waters (<20°C) Reminder to those who would like to visit the park,
Please make your visit safe and enjoyable.
Obey all posted rules and regulation and respect fellow visitors and the resources of the park.
Be prepared and bring the proper equipment. Natural areas may possess hazards. You are responsible for you and your family’s safety. Biodiversity in Kelp Forests Thanks to its three-dimensional shape,
kelp forests support surprisingly high levels of biodiversity. From the bottom to the fronds they host many different species of organisms. The rock crevices beneath the kelp forest canopies are populated by a number of grazing species such as abalones, limpets and sea urchins but also by invertebrates like anemones and sponges (Levinton, J 2001, p 352). Sea urchins are the most abundant grazers in kelp forests. They can become a danger, threatening the existence of the ecosystem itself. Sea urchins are normally excellent scavengers feeding on seaweed fragments that reach the bottom,
also, they are rather sedentary, when they reach large populations they can graze and destroy entire kelp forests. The sea otter Enhydra lutris helps to control the sea urchin population, feeding on them among with other suspension feeders, fish and molluscs. It dives to the bottom, removes an animal and brings it to the surface. It often smashes the prey open with a rock and then floats on its back on the surface while eating. During the eighteenth century these marine mammals were hunted to near extinction for their thick fur causing sea urchins to increase and consequently kelp forests to reduce their expanses, particularly in the seabeds of Alaska. Since 1991 sea otters have been protected and kelp forests have one less problem to deal with! :)
(Hamner, W.) The canopy formed by the kelps’ fronds serves as shelter, nursery and brood area for many organisms due to its warmer waters, slower currents. Many organisms such as whales and other smaller fish use the kelps thick canopy as shelter from predators and storms to protect their young. Endangering Kelp Forests The factors influencing kelp forests stability are diverse: Kelp Harvesting Grazing by Fishes Sea Urchins Crustaceans Plant Competition Storms El Niño events Sedimentation Pollution Commercial kelp harvesting is potentially the greatest threat to long-term kelp stability Algin, which is a product derived from kelp, is used as an emulsifier in processed foods and other products such as paints, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals
(Kelp Impacts). Today kelps are mainly harvested to be used in chemical industrial applications. Large numbers of opaleye or halfmoon fishes can damage kelp forests, particularly when the kelp is exposed to unfavorable growing conditions Sea otters generally contain their number
(Kelp Impacts). Characterized by severe storms and warm water,
El Niño Southern Oscillation Events often devastate kelp forests. Sewage, industrial disposal, and coastal runoff also contribute to kelp forest degradation. High sedimentation from coastal run-off may bury new plant shoots Kelp Forests' General Food Web The unstable balance maintained in kelp forests relays heavily on its trophic equilibrium. In fact, if one species of the main preys or predators "disappears" from the food web, it can result in catastrophic consequences on the whole ecosystem. This is an outline of a food web that can occur in a kelp forest Kelp Sea Urchin Sea Otter Killer Whale Horn Shark Northern Elephant Seal Kelp Crab Sea Star If sea otters would disappear the grazers would increase threatening the kelps. When sea urchins reach great populations they are able to harvest entire kelp forests and leave the so called urchin barrens La Mesa Watershed Due to the inadequacy of watershed protection, the former natural forest cover dwindled resulting to the invasion of grass plant community types in La Mesa. by CEA, Mary Jane :)
ESTRELLADO, Manilyn :)
HERNANDEZ, Marian :) How inappropriate to call this planet Earth when it is quite clearly Ocean! - Arthur C. Clarke - (Edyvane, K. 2004, Ecology of Giant Kelp). Quezon City LA MESA ECO-PARK
A watershed is a land area drained by a stream or fixed body of water, with its tributaries having a common outlet for surface run-off.
A watershed reservation is a forestland reservation established to reduce sedimentation and to protect or improve the conditions of the water yield thereof. The La Mesa watershed is a government property titled under the MWSS and commissioned in 1929. It straddles the boundaries of Quezon City, Caloocan City, and Municipality of Montalban and the provinces of Bulacan, and Rizal. It houses the filtration plant that distributes water to 5 cities and 32 municipalities or about 12 million residents in Metro Manila. It is also the last forest of its size in the metropolis. La Mesa Watershed La Mesa Ecopark From San Pedro, you can ride a bus ( usually BBL bus liner, going to SM Fairview).. P80.00 for Students How to get there: Then drop off to Pearl Drive (Gasoline Station) and ride a tricycle (P10.00) going inside the
La Mesa Compound Our Documentation :)