Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Cinematography 2014

2014
by

jens koeppelmann

on 31 August 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Cinematography 2014

CINEMATOGRAPHY
"WRITING WITH LIGHT IN MOTION"
VITTORIO STORARO
LIGHT IS UNDERSTOOD BY ALL IT'S CHARACTERISTICS
LUMINANCE
CONTRAST
COLOR
COLOR TEMPERATURE
QUALITY
DIRECTION




ABSCENCE OF LIGHT
SHADOW
MOVEMENT IS THE ACTION THAT OCCURS ON & OFF THE SCREEN
APPARENT MOTION
CAMERA MOVEMENT
CHARACTER MOVEMENT
PRESUMED MOTION
IS AN EVOLVING LANGUAGE
HAS SYNTAX AND GRAMMAR OF IT'S OWN
DEVELOPED RULES THAT ARE FREQUENTLY FOLLOWED
RULES ARE MEANT TO BE BROKEN
CINEMATOGRAPHER
FOCUS
DP
DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY
The title is used to designate a chief over the
camera and lighting crews working on a film,
responsible for achieving artistic and technical
decisions related to the image
DIRECTOR'S COLLABORATOR
IN THE CREATIVE PROCESS
TRANSLATES THE VISION HE OR SHE SHARES WITH THE DIRECTOR
IS THE "CO-AUTHOR" OF ANY FILM
THE SIX COMPONENTS OF CINEMATOGRAPHY
CAMERA PLACEMENT
LENS SELECTION
MOVEMENT
COMPOSITION
LIGHTING
EXPOSURE
WHY DO WEE SEE MOVING PICTURES
American Zoetrope is a studio founded by
Francis Ford Coppola and George Lucas.
Founded on December 12, 1969

HUMAN VISION IS NOT PERFECT
CRITICAL FLICKER FUSION
APPARENT MOTION
threshold
APPROXIMATELY 50 FLASHES PER SECOND
FILM = 24/25 FPS
PROJECTOR SHUTTER BREAKS THE LIGHT TWICE
EARLY SILENT FILMS WERE SHOT AT A RATE OF
16 TO 20 FPS AND HAD A PRONOUNCED
"FLICKER". THE SLANG TERM "FLICKS" STILL
EXISTS TODAY
THE CAMERA
THE FILM AND IT'S WAY THROUGH THE CAMERA
SUPPLY REEL
SPROKETS
FILM-LOOP
GATE
INTERMITTENT TRANSPORTATION
SHUTTER
SOUND DRUM
TAKE-UP REEL
MALTESE CROSS / GENEVA DRIVE
FILM
GENEVA DRIVE
MALTESE CROSS
THE PRECISION MOVEMENT IS DIRECTLY
LINKED TO THE ROTATION OF THE SHUTTER
AND MANAGES THE FLOW AND TIMING OF
THE FILM TRANSPORT
SHUTTER ANGLES
EXPOSURE TIME
THE SHUTTER OPENING IS DEFINED AS THE
NUMBER OF DEGREES THAT ARE REMOVED
FROM 360˚DISK
VIDEO
BEAM SPLITTER
TRICHROIC PRISM ASSEMBLY
DIRECTS THE APPROPRIATE WAVELENGTH
OF LIGHT TO THEIR RESPECTIVE CCD'S

SEPERATE READING OF RED,GREEN & BLUE
CCD
CHARGED COUPLED DEVICE
CCD IS AN ANALOG DEVICE

CCD CONTAIN GRIDS OF PIXEL
CMOS
COMPLEMENTARY METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR
ROTATING DISC
OPERATING THE CAMERA
FRAMING
SHOTS ARE ALL ABOUT COMPOSITION.
RATHER THAN POINTING THE CAMERA AT
THE SUBJECT, YOU NEED TO COMPOSE AN IMAGE. FRAMING IS THE PROCESS OF
CREATING COMPOSITION.
THE FRAME IS ALL THE PIXELS THAT CAN BE SEEN IN THE PICTURE
ULTRA HIGH DEFINITION (UHDTV)
4K(2160p) 3840x2160 16:9 EXACTLY 4X1080p
8K(4320p) 7680x4320 16:9 EXACTLY 16x1080p
HIGH DEFINITION (HDTV)
720p 1280x720 16:9
1080p 1920x1080 16:9
STANDARD DEFINITION (SD)
480p/480i 720x480 4:3 (approx.) NTSC
576p/576i 720x576 4:3 (approx.) PAL
DIGITAL CINEMA (DCI)
2K 2048x1080 1.90:1
THE FIRST GENERATION OF DIGITAL CINEMA PROJECTORS
4K 4096x2160 1.90:1
2nd GENERATION DIGITAL CINEMA
ASPECT RATIO
PROGRESSIVE & INTERLACED SCANNING
WHAT DO YOU CALL THAT FORMAT?
THE VERTICAL SIZE OF THE FRAME (SAY, 1080 OR 480 LINES)

FOLLOWED BY p OR i (FOR PROGRESSIVE OR INTERLACED)

FOLLOWED BY THE NUMBER OF SCANS PER SECOND ( THE FRAMERATE OR FIELDRATE
1080p/24
combing effects
stairstep-aliasing
progressive interlaced
cathodray-tube
24fps= 1/48s= 180˚
24fps= 1/96s= 90˚
25fps= 1/50s= 180˚
exposure time
half the lines=lower resolution
THE NUMBER OF FRAMES RECORDED EACH SECOND
FRAME RATE
NTSC
PAL
60Hz
50Hz
30fps = 29.97fps
60fields = 59.94fields
24fps = 23.98fps
25fps = 25fps
50fields = 50fields
24fps = 24fps
CINEMA
24fps = 24fps
25fps = 25fps
RGB 4:4:4
REDUCING COLOR DATA
WHEN LOOKING AT FINE DETAIL, THE HUMAN
EYE IS MUCH MORE SENSITIVE TO BRIGHTNESS
THAN TO COLOR.
SUBSAMPLING
4:2:2
4:1:1
4:2:0
THE HUMAN EYE
LUMINANCE (Y)
COLOR (Cb + Cr)
HEADROOM IS THE SPACE BETWEEN THE TOP OF THE SUBJECT'S HEAD AND THE TOP FRAME OF THE COMPOSITION
LEADROOM IST THE SPACE WHERE DRAMATIC ENERGY IS DIRECTED. FOR CLOSE-UP SHOTS IT IS OFTEN REFERRED TO AS "NOSE-ROOM".
THE CAMERA NEEDS TO ANTICIPATE THE MOVEMENT WITHIN A SCENE RATHER THAN REACT TO IT
ANTICIPATORY FRAMING
LEADROOM
HEADROOM
THE VITRUVIAN MAN
B/A IS EQUAL TO A+B/B
1.6180339887498948420...
SHOTS
XLS
EXTREME LONG SHOT
LS
MLS
3/4
MS
FS
MCU
CU
XCU
LONG SHOT
MEDIUM LONG SHOT
FULL SHOT
COWBOY SHOT
MEDIUM SHOT
MEDIUM CLOSE UP
CLOSE UP
EXTREME CLOSE UP
SHOT OF A LARGE CROWD SCENE OR A VIEW OF SCENERY AS FAR AS THE HORIZON
A VIEW OF A SITUATION OR SETTING FROM A DISTANCE
SHOWS A GROUP OF PEOPLE IN INTERACTION WITH EACH OTHER
A VIEW OF A FIGURE'S ENTIRE BODY IN ORDER TO SHOW ACTION
SHOWS A SUBJECT DOWN SHORTLY OVER WAIST
SUBJECT DOWN TO THE WAIST OR SHOWING HEAD AND SHOULDERS OF 2 PEOPLE
A FULL-SCREEN SHOT SHOWING HEAD AN PARTS OF THE UPPER BODY
A SHOT OF A HAND, EYE MOUTH OR OBJECT IN DETAIL
SHOT OF A SUBJECT'S FACE SHOWING THE FINEST NUANCES OF EXPRESSION
ESTABLISHING SHOT
POV
OTS
OVER THE SHOULDER
INSERT
REVERSE SHOT
POINT OF VIEW
MOVEMENT
PAN
TILT
TRACKING SHOT
ZOOM!
THE CAMERA PANS (MOVES HORIZONTALLY) FROM LEFT TO RIGHT OR VICE VERSA ACROSS THE PICTURE
THE CAMERA MOVES UPWARDS OR DOWNWARDS AROUND A VERTICAL LINE
A STATIONARY CAMERA APPEARS TO APPROACH A SUBJECT BY 'ZOOMING IN'
THE CAMERA FOLLOWS ALONG, NEXT TO, INFRONT OR BEHIND AN OBJECT OR PERSON
ANGLES
OVER HEAD/AERIAL SHOT
HIGH ANGLE
HIGH ANGLE SHOT
STRAIGHT ON SHOT
EYE LEVEL
LOW ANGLE
BELOW ANGLE
WORM'S EYE
50% green
25% red
25% blue
BRYCE BAYER (BAYER PATTERN)
RAW BAYER PATTERN IMAGE/ DEMOSAICING ALGORITHMS TO INTERPOLATE FULLY RGB VALUES FOR EACH POINT
APERTURE
IRIS f/stop
DEPTH OF FIELD
DEPTH OF FIELD IS DEFINED AS THE RANGE OF OBJECT DISTANCES WITHIN OBJECTS ARE SEEN WITH ACCEPTABLE SHARPNESS
THE SHORTER THE FOCAL LENGTH THE MORE THE DEPTH OF FIELD
THE SMALLER THE APERTURE(SIZE) THE GREATER THE DEPTH OF FIELD
THE CLOSER THE OBJECT IS TO THE IMAGE PLANE THE SHALLOWER THE DEPTH OF FIELD
CIRCLE OF CONFUSION
HYPERFOCAL DISTANCE
H
=
F
2
f
*
C
C
IS THE DISTANCE SETTING OF A LENS WHERE ALL OBJECTS FROM HALF THE HYPERFOCAL DISTANCE TO INFINITY ARE IN ACCEPTABLE SHARPNESS
F= FOCAL LENGTH OF LENS
f= f-stop OF LENS
Cc= CIRCLE OF CONFUSION
FAR AND NEAR LIMITS
35MM = 0.001 INCH (0.025MM)
16MM = 0.0005 INCH (0.013MM)
D
=
H*S
H + (S-F)
H - (S-F)
H*S
=
D
n
f
H = HYPERFOCAL DISTANCE
S = DISTANCE CAMERA - SUBJECT
F = FOCAL LENGTH OF LENS
COLOR TEMPERATURE
Full transcript