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The Shape of Wine

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Maria Kuvykina

on 25 February 2014

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Transcript of The Shape of Wine

The Shape of Wine
by Maria Kuvykina
blowing, or shaping hot glass

sand melts into glass when the heat reaches at least 1500 degrees;
it isшimpossible with the timber burning furnace;
the glass was thin and fragile;
wine was stored and transported in wooden casks, clay/ceramic amphorae and jugs, and poured into straw-wrapped bottles upon fancy serving.
The ancient Romans:
the invention of the coal burning furnace
The 17th century:
... and the invention of a cork closure
Cork is a spongy material which comes from the bark of the cork tree.
Before, the most common closures for wine vessels were a coating of pitch or gypsum; later - twists of cloth or leather, sometimes with sealing wax; and finally - the glass stoppels, tied to the bottle by a piece of packthread.
“corkiness,” a condition that exists when wine is tainted by the presence of a chemical compound called TCA.
- causes musty odor, like wet dog, damp cardboard or moldy newspapers.
moisture resistance,
temperature and age stability.

the screw cap
Instead of standard wine labels, bottles were usually only marked with a stamp, customarily made for wealthy gentlemen, merchants, and innkeepers.
During 15th century Venetian glass blower, Angelo Barovier, crated cristallo, transparent glass, by using lavender shade of manganese for "cleansing" the green tint. As many Venetians were coming to northern Europe, they spread the art of Venetian colorless glassblowing worldwide.
dip molds instead of free-blowing
engraved plate mold
mouth-blown bottles, cracked-off or sheared from the blowpipe, were then fire polished, or received additional glass
1876 - patent for a finishing, 'lipping' tool used to create a type of applied, one-part "blob" finish.
the 1890s: the first semi-automatic machines
Turn-mold (paste mold)
- refers to a mouth-blown bottle produced in a wood or metal mold with a "paste" (resin, linseed oil) and/or cork inside, where the bottle is rotated to erase the mold seams and give the bottle a glossy sheen.
External screw-threads were first used during the mid-19th century though almost exclusively on canning jars
"finish the lip,"б"top," "mouth," or "corkage"
The finish and closure are interrelated entities of any bottle.
Lightning-type closure
Cork in combination with wire, twine or string, metal retainer, capsule, and/or wax was the most common closure method on beverage bottles used since 1600s.
It was the stopper which allowed long-term aging of wine, and which permitted the development of the true champagne.
An additional sealing safeguard entailed the placement of a lead or foil wrapper or "capsule" over the upper neck.
The sabot and snap-case were revolutionary tools that replaced the pontil rod almost entirely during the 1850s and to mid-1860s.
and a "Belgian type"
(dates between 1700 and 1730)
a very early English "onion"
(dates between 1680 and 1720)
Port, Sherry, and "Bordeaux" shape
This distinctive and familiar shape:

a tall body with almost vertically parallel sides (the easiest to stack),a moderately steep shoulder, moderately short but distinct neck, and usually a cork accepting champagne style single part finish. The bases usually have a moderate to deep push-up with mamelon.
mid 19th century,
dip molded
Rhône and "Burgundy" shape
pinot noir,
Champagne bottles tend to be a little wider in the body and the base, and made with heavier glass to withstand the internal pressures of carbonation. Plus, they are usually darker.
The bases have deep push-up's with the presence of a
"Mosel" and "Hock" or "Rhine" shape
Hockheim is a vineyard village south of Mannheim, Germany, producing Main-Rhine wines.

The vast majority of hock wine bottles have neither body embossing nor blob seals.
the 1820s
Tall and slender with little or no punt, and no sharp break where the body merges into the shoulder and where the shoulder becomes the neck.
California wineries stealed the term "hock" for their bottles of wine made from Riesling.
Absinthe/Pastis bottles
were also likely used for wine.

Spirits bottles
Occasionally, shapes closely identified with containing spirits were used for wine
(and likely vice versa).
The most obvious point to note: the mould has to taper very slightly outwards towards the top (a millimetre will do). If it doesn't, the bottle will not come out of the mould.
The majority of common bottle glass is
"soda-lime glass"
which is primarily composed of silica dioxide, soda-ash or potash, and lime (calcium oxide).
Different color is achieved by adding certain types of compounds to the glass batch in certain quantities.
"black", "junk bottles"
"olive green"
"amber", clear
Many common sizes are named for Biblical kings and historical figures.
, Piccolo (It)
, Demi (Fr)
* For many years, the U.S. standard wine and liquor bottle was the "fifth", meaning one-fifth of a U.S. gallon, 757 ml or 25.6 U.S. fluid ounces. Some beverages also came in tenth-gallon, half-gallon and one-gallon sizes. In 1979, the U.S. adopted the metric system for wine bottles, with the basic bottle becoming 750 ml, as in Europe.
, Standard
tall bottles with sloping shoulders and a smaller punt.
is a rigid container with a neck that is narrower than the body and a "mouth".
The word
derives from old French
, which comes from vulgar Latin
, itself from late Latin
meaning "cask", which is perhaps the latinization of the Greek
, meaning "vessel".
It eventually gave rise to
"château bottling"
, the practice where an estate's wine is put in a bottle at the source, rather than by a merchant.
1: Wine Jug, Turkey, 3200-2200 BC
2: Shaft & Globe Bottle, Great Britain, 1670
3: Flattened Cylindrical Bottle, Great Britain, 1777
4: Cylindrical Bottle, France, 1880 - the last hand-blown
5: Dinastia Vivanco Exclusive, Spain, Patented Bottle, 2004
cabernet sauvignon,
*750 ml is roughly the average exhalation volume of the human lungs.
Traditional unique bottle shapes and colors became the universal marks of certain wines and countries.

By the 1730s, people began to recognize the importance of different winemakers, grape varieties, and vineyards. Bottles became a universal language of all wine consumers.
It became necessary to start a new practice of
, or storing corked wine bottles on their sides (because there were a lot of them). This made necessary the change in bottle shape from wide-based bottles to a cylindrical type.
darker bottles with plumped necks.
un-standardized, coming in all shapes, sizes, and colors
aluminum top capsules, heated
Some factories, such as
Bennu Glass
, Kalama, Wash., produce more than 12 million wine bottles per year.
Mosel-land cat bottles
To Cork or Not to Cork
a synthetic, plastic substance (1992)
*If you want to chill your white wine with cellucork, remove it and manually put it back in half way so you can pull it out easily before placing in the refrigerator, otherwise they cling to the bottle.
One of the first American high end wines in the over $100 category to go screw cap was
Plumpjack (
Napa Valley, Oakville, California)

– that shocked the wine world.
most of the New Zealand and Australian wines that are fit for consumption within a two year period
Levels of TCA in modern good cork-closed wines are now down to 1%, or the same percentage that are prematurely oxidised due to mechanical damage to screwcaps.
Finally, some predict that shipping wine in bulk has started to make a comeback, for fiscal, environmental and quality considerations.
boxed wine
The world’s first cork stopper factory opened around 1750 in Spain.
mouth-blown bottles, cracked-off or sheared from the blowpipe, were then fire polished, or received additional glass
1876 - patent for a finishing, 'lipping' tool used to create a type of applied, one-part "blob" finish.
"finish the lip,"б"top," "mouth," or "corkage"
The finish and closure are interrelated entities of any bottle.
Lightning-type closure
The optional angle feature is to easily display and view the labels of the valuable wine collections.
glass imperfections
On bottles such as this, with an embossed crest or symbol, you can notice a substantial notch in the bottom or side of the bottle, which assists a labeling machine with finding the bottles “front” to place the label consistently and correctly.
unique bottles have become collector items
This shoulder sealed free-blown mid-19th century French wine bottle indicates containing MUSCAT - a sweet wine made from the grape of the same name which is one of the oldest grape varieties in the world.
The presence of a kick-up or push-up in the base, which is the indentation found in the bottom of a 'better' wine bottles, is known as "punt".
a flattened ellipsoid from Franconia, Germany, manufactured to keep the bottle from rolling away.
"Chianti" style
One of the most famous wines was Italian-Swiss Colony's
"Tipo Chianti."
The tear-drop-shaped bottles were dressed in
to resemble the straw-covered
bottles so common in Italy's Tuscany.
Italy, the 1930s
retro tall and skinny, hand blown
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